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   2011| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 22, 2011

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Negative pressure pulmonary edema revisited: Pathophysiology and review of management
Balu Bhaskar, John F Fraser
July-September 2011, 5(3):308-313
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84108  PMID:21957413
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a dangerous and potentially fatal condition with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Frequently, NPPE is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction, the large negative intrathoracic pressure generated by forced inspiration against an obstructed airway is thought to be the principal mechanism involved. This negative pressure leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular volume and pulmonary capillary transmural pressure, creating a risk of disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. The early detection of the signs of this syndrome is vital to the treatment and to patient outcome. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available literature on NPPE, while probing the pathophysiological mechanisms relevant in both the development of this condition and that involved in its resolution.
  16,147 1,189 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy
Anju Ghai, Monika Gupta, Sarla Hooda, Dinesh Singla, Raman Wadhera
July-September 2011, 5(3):252-257
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84097  PMID:21957402
Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 1-2 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 1-2 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo.
  8,901 737 21
Comparison of streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA TM ) with the laryngeal mask airway Proseal TM for lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries in paralyzed, anesthetized patients
Ashraf Abualhassan Abdellatif, Monaz Abdulrahman Ali
July-September 2011, 5(3):270-276
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84100  PMID:21957405
Context: Supraglottic airway devices have been used as an alternative to tracheal intubation during laparoscopic surgery. Aims: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) for positive pressure ventilation and postoperative complications with the Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal (PLMA) for patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopies under general anesthesia with controlled ventilation. Settings and Design: Prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial performed on patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries. Methods: A total of 120 patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries were randomly allocated into two equal groups; PLMA and SLIPA groups. Number of intubation attempts, insertion time, ease of insertion, and fiberoptic bronchoscopic view were recorded. Lung mechanics data were collected 5 minutes after securing the airway, then after abdominal insufflation. Blood traces and regurgitation were checked for; postoperative sore throat and other complications were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were calculated and statistical analyses were performed for each group. Independent sample t-test was used to compare continuous variables exhibiting normal distribution, and Chi-squared test for noncontinuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Insertion time, first insertion success rate, and ease of insertion were comparable in both groups. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic view was significantly better and epiglottic downfolding was significantly lower in SLIPA group. Sealing pressure and lung mechanics were similar. Gastric distension was not observed in both groups. Postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in PACU in PLMA group. Blood traces on the device were significantly more in SLIPA group. Conclusions: SLIPA can be used as a useful alternative to PLMA in patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgery with muscle relaxant and controlled ventilation.
  8,389 191 12
Use of transesophageal Doppler as a sole cardiac output monitor for reperfusion hemodynamic changes during living donor liver transplantation: An observational study
M Hussien, E Refaat, N Fayed, K Yassen, M Khalil, W Mourad
July-September 2011, 5(3):264-269
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84099  PMID:21957404
Aims: To report the use of transesophageal Doppler (TED), a minimally invasive cardiac output (COP) monitor, before, during and after reperfusion and study its effect on anesthetic management during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Setting and Design: A prospective observational study. Methods: A total of 25 consecutive recipients with a MELD score between 15 and 20 were enrolled. Data were recorded at baseline (TB); anhepatic phase (TA); and post-reperfusion - 1, 5, 10 and 30 minutes. Fluid therapy was guided by corrected flow time (FTc) of the TED. Packed red blood cells (RBCs) were only given when hematocrit was less than 25%. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard laboratory tests were used to guide component blood products requirements. Results: Post-reperfusion, the COP, Cardiac Index (CI) and stroke volume (SV) increased significantly at all points of measurements; this was associated with a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) ( P <.05). Immediately post-reperfusion, for 5 minutes, mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) dropped significantly (P<.05), and 14 out of the 25 patients required boluses of epinephrine (10 μg) to restore the mean ABP; 3 of the 14 patients required norepinephrine infusion till the end of surgery. Central venous pressure (CVP) and urine output (UOP) at all measures were maintained adequately with FTc-guided fluid replacement. Eight out of the 25 patients required no blood transfusion, and 4 of the 8 patients required no catecholamine support. Conclusion: TED as a sole monitor for COP was able to present significant and reliable changes in the cardiovascular status of the recipients during reperfusion, which could help to guide fluid- and drug-supportive therapy in this population of patients. This preliminary study needs to be applied on a larger scale.
  7,618 763 3
CASE REPORTS
Anesthetic considerations and difficult airway management in a case of Noonan syndrome
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sachin Gupta, Jasbir Kaur, Aparajita Panda, Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Amarjit Singh, SS Parmar, Seema Prasad
July-September 2011, 5(3):345-347
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84121  PMID:21957424
Noonan syndrome is a genetically transmitted autosomal dominant disorder characterized by various anatomic anomalies and pathophysiologic derangements. Anesthetic management in such cases poses a multitude of challenges, especially related to the airway management and maintenance of cardiovascular stability. We report a case of a 9-year-old male child weighing 24 kg, who was diagnosed as a case of Noonan syndrome and had undergone ligation of patent ductus arteriosus during early childhood. The child was operated on for release of bilateral neck bands under general anesthesia. The case report pertains to the successful airway and anesthetic management in the background of difficult airway and existence of various cardiac lesions.
  6,663 264 1
Cerebral fat embolism: A diagnostic challenge
Babita Gupta, Manpreet Kaur, Nita D'souza, Chandan Kumar Dey, Seema Shende, Atin Kumar, Shivanand Gamangatti
July-September 2011, 5(3):348-352
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84122  PMID:21957425
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare but a serious clinical catastrophe occurring after traumatic injury to long bones. Cerebral involvement in the absence of pulmonary or dermatological manifestation on initial presentation may delay the diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). We discuss a case series of CFE which posed a challenge in diagnosis. The clinical presentations of these patients did not satisfy the commonly used clinical criteria for aiding the diagnosis of FES. Early MRI brain (DWI and T2 weighted sequences) in patients with neurological symptoms after trauma even in the absence of pulmonary and dermatological findings should be the goal.
  6,434 340 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism
Karen Shashok
July-September 2011, 5(3):303-307
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84107  PMID:21957412
Plagiarism and inadequate citing appear to have reached epidemic proportions in research publication. This article discusses how plagiarism is defined and suggests some possible causes for the increase in the plagiarism disease. Most editors do not have much tolerance for text re-use with inadequate citation regardless of reasons why words are copied from other sources without correct attribution. However, there is now some awareness that re-use of words in research articles to improve the writing or "the English" (which has become a common practice) should be distinguished from intentional deceit for the purpose of stealing other authors' ideas (which appears to remain a very rare practice). Although it has become almost as easy for editors to detect duplicate text as it is for authors to re-use text from other sources, editors often fail to consider the reasons why researchers resort to this strategy, and tend to consider any text duplication as a symptom of serious misconduct. As a result, some authors may be stigmatized unfairly by being labeled as plagiarists. The article concludes with practical advice for researchers on how to improve their writing and citing skills and thus avoid accusations of plagiarism.
  5,431 277 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of the ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance with the modified Mallampati and the upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy
Mohammadreza Safavi, Azim Honarmand, Narges Zare
July-September 2011, 5(3):258-263
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84098  PMID:21957403
Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT). Methods: We collected data on 603 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all three factors before surgery. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC) for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 41 (6.8%) patients. The main endpoint of the present study, the AUC of the ROC, was significantly lower for the MMT (AUC, 0.511; 95% CI, 0.470-0.552) than the ULBT (AUC, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.671-0.745, P=0.002) and the RHTMD score (AUC, 0.711; 95% CI, 0.673-0.747, P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the AUC of the ROC for the ULBT and the RHTMD score. By using discrimination analysis, the optimal cutoff point for the RHTMD for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 21.06 (sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 58.5%). Conclusion: The RHTMD is comparable with ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in general population.
  4,990 614 6
CASE REPORTS
Tracheal intubation in the prone position with an intubating laryngeal mask airway following posterior spine impaled knife injury
Aloka Samantaray
July-September 2011, 5(3):329-331
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84114  PMID:21957419
A prone position is not a standard position for anesthesia induction and associated with problems like difficult mask fit, impairment of orotracheal intubation by direct laryngoscopy, and reduction of pulmonary compliance. However anesthetic management of trauma victims presenting with penetrating posterior lumbar spine injury requires airway securement and induction of anesthesia in the prone position to avoid further neurological impairment. We herein present the first reported case of an adult trauma patient presented with an impaled knife protruding out of lower back, who underwent endotracheal intubation with an intubating laryngeal mask airway under general anesthesia in the prone position. Our experience indicates that this technique would be easier and less risky compared to direct laryngoscopy or awake fiber optic intubation and might be considered in an emergency situation.
  5,295 235 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Epidural anesthesia and post-operative analgesia for bilateral inguinal mesh hernioplasty: Comparison of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine
Sara Korula, Grace Maria George, Shaloo Ipe, Saramma P Abraham
July-September 2011, 5(3):277-281
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84101  PMID:21957406
Objectives: Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide local anesthetic, which is structurally very similar to bupivacaine but produces less motor block and less cardiac and central nervous system toxicity. It is also about 40% less potent than bupivacaine. Our double blind study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of the equipotent doses of ropivacaine 0.75% and bupivacaine 0.5% for epidural anesthesia and ropivacaine 0.2% and bupivacaine 0.125% for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing bilateral mesh hernioplasty. Methods: Sixty-one patients were randomized to receive 15 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Sensory and motor block characteristics were compared. Changes in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and adverse effects were noted. For post-operative analgesia, 0.2% ropivacaine and 0.125% bupivacaine were given as continuous epidural infusion. Analgesia using VAS scores, motor block, volume of local anesthetic used and patient satisfaction was assessed. Results: There was no significant variation in the sensory block profile. A greater intensity of motor block was achieved with bupivacaine in the beginning but by 30 minutes the difference was not significant. Duration of motor block was similar in the two groups. Visual analog scale scores were similar in both groups during the post-operative period, with a similar motor block profile. No major side effects were noted in any group. Conclusion: The equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine provided good quality epidural anesthesia and post-operative analgesia.
  5,169 327 3
CASE REPORTS
Potential role of coronary computed tomography angiogram in cardiac preoperative evaluation
Ahmed Fathala
July-September 2011, 5(3):342-344
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84120  PMID:21957423
Preoperative assessment of the cardiac patients before noncardiac surgery is concern in the clinical practice of anesthesiologist, surgeon, and medical consultant. The preferred stress testing is exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients who are able to exercise and have normal ECG; however, either stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) or stress echocardiography is necessary if further testing is appropriately indicated before surgery. Unfortunately, stress MPs or stress echocardiography is not widely available and has some limitations. Coronary computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) has demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting coronary artery disease and accurate left ventricle function measurement. CCTA seems to be feasible, reliable, and has strong potential of becoming sole screening test before surgery.
  5,024 99 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives
Babita Gupta, Pramendra Agrawal, Nita D'souza, Kapil Dev Soni
July-September 2011, 5(3):286-288
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84103  PMID:21957408
Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs). Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs). Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR) staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.
  4,334 229 4
The evaluation of upper leg traction in lateral position for pediatric caudal block
Mahin Seyedhejazi, Reza Taheri, Morteza Ghojazadeh
July-September 2011, 5(3):248-251
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84096  PMID:21957401
Purpose: A well-functioning caudal block is an excellent adjunct to general anesthesia, but misplaced injection results in poor analgesia as well as possibility of serious morbidity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leg traction on success rate of caudal block in lateral position in children. Methods: Two hundred children, age 2 months to 6 years, ASA I and II, who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomized in prospective controlled clinical trial study in two groups. After induction of General anesthesia, the caudal block was performed in the lateral position with upper leg traction (L-T-) or with the standard position (S-P) (leg flexed 90΀). Hemodynamicchanges, movement of lower extremity in response to surgical stimulus were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in caudal block's success rate between two groups at first attempt (P=0.25). In group (S-P) the procedure was successful in 60% of cases at first attempt, 25% at second,10% at third attempt and 5% failure of caudal block, whereas in the first group it was 75%, 20%, 1% and 4% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure changes between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The success rate of pediatric caudal block in upper leg traction did not differ from that of the standard position.
  4,377 171 1
CASE REPORTS
Anesthetic considerations of central airway obstruction
Abdelazeem El-Dawlatly, Sami Alnassar, Ahmed Abodonya, Nada Almutlaq, Waseem Hajjar
July-September 2011, 5(3):326-328
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84113  PMID:21957418
Central airway obstruction (CAO) is a serious presentation of lung cancer and associated chest diseases. It presents a real challenge to the anesthesiologist because usually the patient admitted to the hospital as an emergency case with high grade dyspnea scheduled to undergo rigid bronchoscopy for diagnostic and possible therapeutic interventions. In this case report, we described the anesthetic management of a patient who was admitted to our hospital with CAO.
  4,199 156 1
EDITORIAL
Management of the patient with a central airway obstruction
Peter Slinger
July-September 2011, 5(3):241-243
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84094  PMID:21957399
  3,507 258 2
CASE REPORTS
Common carotid artery surprise during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy - A near miss, confirmed with ultrasound
Sarfaraz M Khan, Tariq Alzahrani
July-September 2011, 5(3):353-355
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84123  PMID:21957426
The practice of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) has gained popularity and acceptance due to the ease in acquiring its skill and low probability of complications. Nevertheless, PDT is associated with a few complications, some really life-threatening. We present a case of an abnormally located common carotid artery encountered during PDT in our intensive care unit. The procedure was electively posted, in an old patient chronically ventilated after a revived cardiac arrest. While identifying the landmarks on palpation pulsation was felt similar to arterial pulsation. This was confirmed using bedside portable ultrasonography and found to be the right common carotid artery forming a loop anterior to the trachea at the level of the third and fourth tracheal rings. The patient had a past history of thyroidectomy and this was suspected to be the primary reason for the altered course of the right common carotid artery.
  3,605 132 3
Postoperative hypoxemia due to fat embolism
Tarun Bhalla, Amod Sawardekar, Kevin Klingele, Joseph D Tobias
July-September 2011, 5(3):332-334
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84115  PMID:21957420
Although the reported incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES) is low (approximately 1%), it is likely that microscopic fat emboli are showered during manipulation of long bone fractures. Even though there continues to be debate regarding the etiology and proposed mechanism responsible for FES, significant systemic manifestations may occur. Treatment is generally symptomatic based on the clinical presentations. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed hypoxemia following treatment of a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia. The subsequent evaluation and hospital course pointed to fat embolism as the most likely etiology for the hypoxemia. We discuss the etiology for FES, review the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for its clinical manifestations, present currently accepted diagnostic criteria, and discuss its treatment.
  3,357 193 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Intra and postoperative outcome of adding clonidine to bupivacaine in infraorbital nerve block for young children undergoing cleft lip surgery
Parul Jindal, Gurjeet Khurana, Sanjay Dvivedi, JP Sharma
July-September 2011, 5(3):289-294
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84104  PMID:21957409
Aims and Context: To evaluate the efficacy of adding clonidine to bupivacaine in bilateral infraorbital nerve block for hemodynamic changes, requirement of opioids, volatile agent, and muscle relaxants intraoperatively and relief of pain postoperatively . Setting and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Methods: Fifty pediatric patients aged less than 24 months undergoing elective cleft lip repair were randomly allocated to two groups of 25 each. After tracheal intubation, group A received bilateral infraorbital nerve block with 1 ml solution of clonidine (1 μg/kg) and bupivacaine 0.25%, and group B received 1 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine. Hemodynamic parameters, intraoperative requirement of volatile anesthetic agent, muscle relaxant, and analgesic were recorded. Pain was assessed postoperatively using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale till the first rescue drug was given. Statistical Analysis: Two sample unpaired t-test and the correlation r test. Results: The duration of analgesia from the time of administration of block in group A was 667.72 ± 210.74 min compared to 558.48 ± 150.28 min in group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: Addition of clonidine as an adjunct to local anesthetic significantly decreased the requirement of other anesthetic drugs and significantly prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia without any adverse effects.
  3,316 185 2
Anesthesiologists work-related exhaustion: A comparison study with other hospital employees
Waleed Riad, Afaf Mansour, Ashraf Moussa
July-September 2011, 5(3):244-247
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84095  PMID:21957400
Background: Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff Methods: One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each) were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Results: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups ( P = 0.001). Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists ( P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups ( P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.
  3,229 189 6
CASE REPORTS
Ogilvie's syndrome following cesarean delivery: The Dubai's case
Strahil Kotsev
July-September 2011, 5(3):335-338
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84117  PMID:21957421
We present a case of acute colonic pseudo obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome) post Cesarean Section in a 35 years old Arabic patient with co-existing systemic lupus erythematosus. Due to developed complications-perforations of the colon and peritonitis, the patient required laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Ogilvie's syndrome, reported from the Middle East. The possible etiologic factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work up and treatment are discussed. The need for awareness about the syndrome and early diagnosis is emphasized.
  3,188 139 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of the sedative, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging
Jaydev Dave, Sandip Vaghela
July-September 2011, 5(3):295-299
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84105  PMID:21957410
Aim: To compare the sedative, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Methods: Sixty children between the age of 1 to 7 years were randomly distributed into two groups: The dexmedetomidine (D) group received 1 μg/kg initial dose followed by continuous infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h, and the propofol group (P) received 3 mg/kg initial dose, followed by a continuous infusion of 100 μg/kg/min. Inadequate sedation was defined as difficulty in completing the procedure because of the child's movement during magnetic resonance imaging. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate (RR) were recorded during the study. Result: The onset of sedation, recovery, and discharge time were significantly shorter in group P than in group D. MAP, heart rate, and RR decreased during sedation from the baseline values in both groups. MAP and RR were significantly lower in group P than in group D during sedation. Dexmedetomidine and propofol provided adequate sedation in most of the children. Conclusion: We conclude that although propofol provided faster anesthetic induction and recovery times, it caused hypotension and desaturation. Dexmedetomidine could be an alternative, reliable sedative drug to propofol in selected patients.
  3,117 167 3
Percutaneous tracheotomy: Forceps vs. cone dilatation techniques
T Alzahrani, S Nawaz, B Delvi, W Hajjar
July-September 2011, 5(3):300-302
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84106  PMID:21957411
Background: Percutanoeous tracheotomy (PT) is a minimal invasive procedure alternative to surgical tracheotomy. PT offers an added advantage of enormous decrease of time interval between decision of doing tracheotomy and actually doing it. Moreover hazards of patient transport can be avoided as it can be safely performed at the bedside. We started doing PT in 2003 and performed 100 cases using forceps dilatation. Later we switched over to cone dilatation where we performed 215 cases. This study aims to compare two techniques of forceps vs. cone dilatation methods for PT. Methods: A total of 100 cases of PT were performed starting from December 2003 to August 2005 using the forceps dilatation method (group A). Further 215 cases were conducted (group B) from September 2003 to July 2008 using the cone dilatation method. Time of performing both procedures was recorded. Also incidence of complications was also recorded in both groups. Results: The incidence of minor bleeding in group A was 9%, whereas in group B was 5.58%. Major bleeding occurred in two patients in group B. Both cases suffered of pneumothorax and emphysema. One patient developed life-threatening tension pneumothorax and required cardio pulmonary resuscitation. This was one case in this series, in which the procedure has contributed to patient's morbidity. Guide wire-related technical difficulties were seen in 2% of the cases in group A, and 3.7% of cases in group B. Conclusion: forceps dilatation PT is superior to the cone dilatation technique in terms of safety. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.
  3,133 119 -
CASE REPORTS
Low-dose sequential combined-spinal epidural anesthesia for Cesarean section in patient with uncorrected tetrology of Fallot
Sohan Lal Solanki, Amit Jain, Amanjot Singh, Arun Sharma
July-September 2011, 5(3):320-322
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84111  PMID:21957416
Tetrology of Fallot (TOF) is the most commonly encountered congenital cardiac lesion in pregnancy. Although there are controversies regarding safe anesthetic technique for parturient with TOF, we use low-dose sequential combined-spinal epidural anesthesia in such a case posted for Cesarean section and found that low dose (0.5 ml of 0.5%) intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl with sequential epidural bupivacaine supplementation was adequate for the performance of an uncomplicated Cesarean section with minimal side effects and good fetal outcome. Thus, though the choice of anesthesia can vary in such patients, low-dose sequential combined-spinal epidural can be a safe alternate to achieve good anesthesia with impressive cardiovascular stability.
  2,894 196 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A single-centre randomized-controlled trial to study effect of dilution on propofol-induced injection pain at injection site
Sourabh Aggarwal, Mahendra Kumar, Vishal Sharma
July-September 2011, 5(3):282-285
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84102  PMID:21957407
Background: Propofol is a commonly used short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent. A major disadvantage of propofol is pain at injection site with high incidence up to 90%. Various modalities have been tried to obtund propofol-induced pain; however, search for an ideal agent continues. We assessed the effect of double and triple dilution of 1% propofol emulsion with normal saline on pain at injection site. Methods: This randomized, double-blinded study was done on 60 adult patients of both sexes, belonging to ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia, divided into three groups named I, II, III of 20 patients each. The patients of group I, II, and III received 1% propofol 2 ml, 0.5% propofol 4 ml, and 0.33% propofol 6 ml, respectively, over a period of 4 s and pain felt was assessed. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the pain score in group II as compared to patients in group I. However, there was a statistically significant decrease in the pain score in group III as compared to patients in group I (P value 0.02) and group II (P value 0.03). Conclusions: We found a significant decrease in both incidence and severity of pain during injection with a 0.33% propofol solution without significant adverse hemodynamic effects. The small size of data was a limitation in our study and a large-scale study will be needed to prove its therapeutic beneficence.
  2,851 239 2
CASE REPORTS
Fully successful resuscitation despite prolonged cardiac arrest
Hosein Kimiaei Asadi, John Pollard
July-September 2011, 5(3):314-316
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84109  PMID:21957414
Sudden cardiac arrest following spinal anesthesia is a relatively common and often fatal complication. Careful patient selection, appropriate dosing of the local anesthetic, volume loading, close monitoring and prompt intervention at the first sign of cardiovascular instability should improve outcomes.
  2,402 248 -
Neurogenic pulmonary edema after rupture of intracranial aneurysm during endovascular coiling
Ashish Bindra, Girija P Rath, Sachidanand J Bharti, Keshav Goyal, Subhash Kumar
July-September 2011, 5(3):323-325
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84112  PMID:21957417
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a well-known entity, occurs after acute severe insult to the central nervous system. It has been described in relation to different clinical scenario. However, NPE has rarely been mentioned after endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysms. Here, we report the clinical course of a patient who developed NPE after aneurysmal rupture during endovascular surgery. There was significant cardiovascular instability possibly from stimulation of hypothalamus adjacent to the site of aneurysm. This case highlights the predisposition of minimally invasive procedures like endovascular coiling to life-threatening complications such as NPE.
  2,491 117 1
Anesthesia implications in emergency oncologic surgery in a case of untreated Parkinsonism
Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Jasbir Kaur, Anita Singh
July-September 2011, 5(3):317-319
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84110  PMID:21957415
Oncologic surgery has made tremendous advancements in the last two decades. The prognosis of once thought to be irreversible and incurable diseases has improved dramatically with these advancements, which have given a fresh lease of hope to the general population. But there are certain factors that are still unfavorable for achieving improved outcome of surgery in various cancers. The associated comorbid diseases do determine to a large extent the actual outcome of all the interventions to treat oncologic disease. The untreated coexisting disease makes the task of the attending anesthesiologist very challenging as numerous complications are anticipated, especially during emergency surgery. We are describing a case of a patient with endometrial carcinoma who presented with unstoppable bleeding per-vaginum and was suffering from Parkinson disease since 1΍ years, for which no treatment was ever sought. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed under graded epidural anesthesia; and after a smooth and uneventful postoperative period of 8 days, she was referred to radiotherapy unit for further management.
  2,458 89 2
Role of clonidine in perioperative acute atrial fibrillation
Vishal Garg, KN Prasad
July-September 2011, 5(3):339-341
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84119  PMID:21957422
We report a case of acute onset atrial fibrillation (AF) that presented for emergency surgery where rate control and sinus rhythm were successfully achieved using clonidine. Patient had acute AF with high blood pressure. Metoprolol failed to decrease the ventricular rate and blood pressure but with clonidine, we could achieve both the goals. Also, rhythm reverted to a sinus rhythm and continued to be in sinus rhythm after administering clonidine.
  2,222 102 1
LETTER TO EDITOR
Oral oxygenating airway
Mohamed Daabiss, Nashat ElSaid
July-September 2011, 5(3):356-356
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84125  PMID:21957427
  1,549 119 -
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