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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| May-August  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 6, 2010

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Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Jasbir Kaur
May-August 2010, 4(2):72-79
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65132  PMID:20927266
Background and Aims: Keeping in consideration the merits of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), a genuine attempt was made to find the ideal drug combinations which can be used in general anesthesia. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare two drug combinations of TIVA using propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl and to study the induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics following anesthesia with these techniques. Settings and Design: A case control study was conducted, which included 100 patients, in the department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive care, Government Medical College and Hospital, Patiala. Patients and Methods: A hundred patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years of either gender were divided into two groups of 50 each, and they underwent elective surgery of approximately 1 h duration. Group I received propofol-ketamine while group II received propofol-fentanyl for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. All the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically with student's unpaired t-test and chi-square test. Results : Propofol-fentanyl combination produced a significantly greater fall in pulse rate (PR; 9.28% versus 0.23%) and in both systolic (7.94% versus 0.12%) and diastolic blood pressures (BP; 8.10% versus 0.35%) as compared to propofol-ketamine during induction of anesthesia. Propofol-ketamine combination produced stable hemodynamics during maintenance phase while on the other hand propofol-fentanyl was associated with a slight increase in both PR and BP. During recovery, ventilation score was better in group I while movement and wakefulness score was better in group II. Mean time to protrusion of tongue and lifting of head was shorter in group I. Conclusions : Both propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations produce rapid, pleasant and safe anesthesia with only a few untoward side effects and only minor hemodynamic effects.
  8 9,713 1,246
Comparison of classic peribulbar anesthesia and new entry point (single percutaneous injection technique) in vitroretinal surgery
Tarek M El Said, Mamdouh Mahmoud Kabeel
May-August 2010, 4(2):80-85
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65130  PMID:20927267
Purpose: To describe the method that seeks to improve the administration of regional anesthesia for vitroretinal surgery avoiding the risk of potential complications associated with other techniques through comparison of safety and efficacy of classic peribulbar anesthesia versus single percutaneous technique using a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients were randomized to classic peribulbar and single percutaneous peribulbar technique after informed consent. Pain during administration of anesthesia, during surgery was graded on a visual analogue pain scale and compared for both techniques. Globe akinesia, analgesia and IOP measurements before and after administration of anesthesia, detection of distribution of local anesthetic agent by ultrasound scanning and complications related were also compared. Results: Twenty out of 50 (40%) patients of group 1(classic pirebulbar) and 36/50 (72%) of group II (single percutaneous technique) experience no pain during administration of anesthesia. Scores for globe akinesia and anesthesia were less satisfactory in group 1 and supplemental blocks required in 8% of the patients while in group II all of the patients (100%) showed proper globe akinesia and anesthesia. There were significant elevation in mean IOP following injection in both groups and the incidence of subconjunctival haemorrhage, chemosis and echymosis were more frequent in group 1. Conclusion: Single percutaneous peribulbar technique proved to be a safe and efficient technique that offers excellent anesthesia and akinesia with less complication for various ophthalmic procedures
  3 3,227 246
Conventional mechanical ventilation
Joseph D Tobias
May-August 2010, 4(2):86-98
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65128  PMID:20927268
The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.
  3 6,603 787
Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction complicating aortic valve replacement: A hidden malefactor revisited
Prashanth Panduranga, Madan Mohan Maddali, Mohammed Khamis Mukhaini, John Valliattu
May-August 2010, 4(2):99-101
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65118  PMID:20927269
It is known that a dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction exists in patients, following aortic valve replacement (AVR) and is usually considered to be benign. We present a patient with dynamic LVOT obstruction following AVR, who developed refractory cardiogenic shock and expired inspite of various treatment strategies. This phenomenon must be diagnosed early and should be considered as a serious and potentially fatal complication following AVR. The possible mechanisms and treatment options are reviewed.
  2 6,870 161
Endotracheal tube defects: Hidden causes of airway obstruction
Khalid Sofi, Kariman El-Gammal
May-August 2010, 4(2):108-110
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65123  PMID:20927272
Manufacturing defects of endotracheal tube (ETT) are still encountered in anesthesia practice. Many such defects go unnoticed during routine inspection prior to their use. Such defects in ETT may lead to partial or complete airway obstruction in an intubated patient. We report a case of partial airway obstruction with a prepacked, single use, uncuffed ETT due to a manufacturing defect in the form of a plastic meniscus at the distal end of the tube. This case report highlights the significance of standard monitoring of ventilation and the role of a vigilant clinician in detecting such defects in avoiding critical events as can arise from the use of such defective ETTs. It also emphasizes the need for double checking ETTs prior to their use.
  2 3,406 203
Does the use of ketamine or nitroglycerin as an adjuvant to lidocaine improve the quality of intravenous regional anesthesia?
Khaled Fawzy Elmetwaly, Nasr Abdelmohsen Hegazy, Abdelkhalek Abdelmonem Aboelseoud, Ahmad Abdullah Alshaer
May-August 2010, 4(2):55-62
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65122  PMID:20927263
Aims: To compare and evaluate the effect of adding ketamine or nitroglycerin (NTG) as adjuncts to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) on intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, sensorial and motor block onset times, and tourniquet pain. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing hand surgery were divided into three groups as follows: control group receiving lidocaine 2%, LK group receiving lidocaine 2% with ketamine, and LN group administered lidocaine 2% with NTG. Sensory and motor blocks' onset and recovery times were recorded. Visual analog scale (VAS) for tourniquet pain was measured after tourniquet application and it was also used to measure postoperative pain. Analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain and postoperatively were recorded. Results: Sensory block onset times were shorter in the LK (4.4 1.2 minutes) and LN (3.5 0.9 minutes) groups compared with the control group (6.5 1.1 minute) (P <0.0001) and motor block onset times were shorter in the LK (7.3 1.6 minutes) and LN (3.6 1.2 minutes) groups compared with the control group (10.2 1.5 minutes) (P<0.0001). Sensory recovery time prolonged in the LK (6.7 1.3 minutes) and LN (6.9 1.1 minutes) groups compared with the control group (5.3 1.4 minutes) (P = 0.0006 and <0.0001, respectively). Motor recovery time prolonged in the LK (8.4 1.4 minutes) and LN (7.9 1.1 minutes) groups compared with the control group (7.1 1.3 minutes) (P = 0.0014 and 0.023, respectively). The sensory and motor block onset times were also shorter in LN group than in the LK group (3.5 0.9 versus 4.4 1.2 minutes, P=0.004; and 3.6 1.2 versus 7.3 1.6 minutes, P < 0.0001, respectively). The amount of fentanyl required for tourniquet pain was less in adjuvant groups when compared with control group. It was 13.6 27.9 and 27.6 34.9 μg in LK group and LN groups, respectively, versus 54.8 28 μg in the control group. VAS scores of tourniquet pain were higher at 10, 20, 30, 40 minutes in the control group compared with the other study groups (P < 0.0001). It was also higher in LN group compared with LK group at 30 and 40 minutes (P < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores were higher for the first 4 h in control group compared with the other study groups (P< 0.0001). Conclusions: The adjuvant drugs (ketamine or NTG) when added to lidocaine in IVRA were effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, reducing tourniquet pain, increasing tourniquet tolerance and improving the postoperative analgesia in comparison to the control group. Ketamine as an adjuvant produced better tolerance to tourniquet than the other groups. NTG as an adjuvant produced faster onset of sensory and motor blockades in comparison to other groups .
  2 3,992 383
Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a major referral center
Masoud Saghafinia, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Piryaie, Hasan Rafati, Abdollah Saghafi, Alireza Jalali, Seyed Jalal Madani, Reza Bakhshi Kolahdehi
May-August 2010, 4(2):68-71
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65131  PMID:20927265
Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), by the code blue team at our center to compare with other centers. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all adult patients who underwent CPR at our hospital from 2007 to 2008. CPR was performed on 290 patients and it was given 313 times. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated via binomial and chi square-tests. Results: Of the 290 patients included, 95 patients (30.4%) had successful CPR. However, only 35 patients (12%) were alive at discharge. The majority requiring CPR were above 60 years of age (61.7%). Males required CPR more than females. There were 125 women (43.1%) and 165 males (56.9%) aged 3 to 78 (average 59.6) years. Majority (179) of the cases (61.7%) were above 60 years of age. Regarding the various wards, 54 cases (17.3%) were in the internal medicine ward, 63 cases (20.1%) in the surgery ward, 1 case (0.3%) in the clinic, 11 cases (3.5%) in the paraclinic, 116 cases (37.1%) in the emergency (ER), 55 cases (17.5%) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Coronary Care Unit (CCU), and 13 cases (4.2%) were in other wards. Cardiac massage was done in 133 cases (42.5%), defibrillation only via electroshock 3 cases (1%), and both were used in177 cases (56.5%). The ER had the most cases of CPR. Both cardiac massage and electroshock defibrillation were needed in most cases. Conclusion: In-hospital CPR for cardiopulmonary arrest was associated with 30.4% success at our center at the end of CPR but only 12% were alive at discharge. Duration of CPR >10 minutes was predictive of significantly decreased survival to discharge.
  2 4,742 293
Ventricular tachycardia during microdebrider-assisted turbinectomy: An electrocardiographic artifact
Khalid Sofi, Ab Salam Khalid, Kurdi A Mushtaq Gilani
May-August 2010, 4(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65124  PMID:20927273
Interference of monitored electrocardiogram is common during different surgical procedures using electrical equipment. The electrical devices used induce artifacts in the electrocardiographic tracing, which may resemble serious arrhythmia. We describe a case of electrocardiographic artifact resembling ventricular tachycardia with the use of a Storz unidrive microdebrider during inferior turbinectomy under general anesthesia. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge of various equipment-related electrocardiographic artifacts in avoiding unnecessary and harmful therapeutic interventions.
  1 4,727 133
Severe lingual tonsillar hypertrophy and the rationale supporting early use of wire-guided retrograde intubation
Kristopher Schroeder, Aimee Becker, Christopher Guite, George Arndt
May-August 2010, 4(2):102-104
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65120  PMID:20927270
An expanding body of literature exists which describes the airway challenges and management options for lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (LTH). The use of retrograde intubation to secure a patient's airway in the setting of LTH has been previously unreported and should be considered early in the event of a cannot intubate, cannot ventilate scenario. A 55-year-old man, who had previously been described as an easy intubation, presented an unexpected cannot intubate, cannot ventilate scenario secondary to LTH. Various noninvasive airway maneuvers were attempted to restore ventilation without success. We describe the advantages of early use of wire-guided retrograde intubation as an alternative to a surgical airway for obtaining a secure airway in a patient with LTH, in whom noninvasive airway management maneuvers have failed. Multiple different noninvasive approaches to management of LTH have been previously described including the laryngeal tube, laryngeal mask airway, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, none of these noninvasive airway maneuvers successfully ventilated this patient and an invasive airway became necessary. Retrograde intubation is a less invasive alternative to the surgical airway with potentially less risk for complications. Retrograde intubation may be particularly effective in the setting of LTH as it may stent open an otherwise occluded airway and allow passage of an endotracheal tube. Skillful use of this technique should be considered early as a viable option in any case of unexpected difficult intubation due to LTH.
  1 5,748 161
Personalized intravenous regional anesthesia
Pamela Flood
May-August 2010, 4(2):46-46
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65117  PMID:20927261
  1 2,557 301
Pseudo loss of resistance in epidural space localization
Babita Gupta, Sarita Sharma, Nita D'souza, Manpreet Kaur
May-August 2010, 4(2):117-118
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65126  PMID:20927275
  1 3,045 165
Mixed venous versus central venous oxygen saturation in patients undergoing on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting
Ahmad Alshaer, Mohamed Essam Abdel-Meguid, Osama Ibraheim, Khaled Fawzi, Ibrahim AbdulSalam, Saad Sheta, Khaled M Abdullah, Ahmed El-Demerdash, Raed Al-Satli, Mohamed AbdelAll, Bakir M Bakir, Nezar AlNahal, Yasser Abdulrahman, Hanaa AlHamoud
May-August 2010, 4(2):63-67
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65129  PMID:20927264
Objective: To examine the validity of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 ) as a numerical substitution of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) in adult patients undergoing normothermic on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical observational study was done at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty four adult patients scheduled for coronary artery surgery were included. Patients were monitored by a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) as a part of our routine intraoperative monitoring. SvO 2 and ScvO 2 were simultaneously measured 15 minutes (T1) and 30 minutes (T2) after induction of anesthesia, 15 and 30 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (T3 and T4), and 15 and 30 minutes after admission to intensive care unit (T5 and T6). Results: ScvO 2 showed higher reading than SvO 2 all through our study. Our results showed perfect positive statistically significant correlation between SvO 2 and ScvO 2 at all data points. Individual mean of difference (MOD) between both the readings at study time showed MOD of 1.34 and 1.44 at T1 and T2 simultaneously. This MOD was statistically insignificant, but after on pump beating normothermic bypass was initiated; MOD was 5.2 and 4.4 at T3 and T4 with high statistical significance. In ICU, MOD continues to have high statistical significance, MOD was 6.3 at T5 and at T6 it was 4.6. Conclusions: In on pump beating CABG patients; ScvO 2 and SvO 2 are not interchangeable numerically. ScvO 2 is useful in the meaning of trend; our data suggest that ScvO 2 is equivalent to SvO 2 , only in the course of clinical decisions as long as absolute values are not required.
  1 9,638 249
Difficult intubation management in a child with I-cell disease
Abdul Kader M. Mahfouz, G George, Suhaila S Al-Bahlani, Mohamed Z Al Nabhani
May-August 2010, 4(2):105-107
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65121  PMID:20927271
I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II) is a rare metabolic disorder resulting from the deficiency of a specific lysosomal enzyme, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferease. Developmental delay and growth failure are common presentations of I-cell disease. Psychomotor deterioration is rapid and progressive. Some physical signs such as hip dislocations, inguinal hernia, hepatomegaly, joint limitation, and skin changes may be present at birth. Coarse facial features and skeletal abnormalities become more conspicuous with time. The life expectancy of children with this condition is poor, with death usually occurring around the fifth year. A case report of the anesthetic management of gingivectomy with multiple dental extractions in a 5-year-old Omani female with I-cell disease is presented. The problems faced and their management during anesthesia are described.
  - 4,738 186
Pulmonary artery catheter entrapment in cardiac surgery
Raed Alsatli
May-August 2010, 4(2):114-116
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65125  PMID:20927274
A pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is an important tool in the preoperative cardiac management, and it provides measurements which helps in the patient management During open heart surgery the catheter tends to rest against the anterior lateral wall of the right atrium where the catheter may be caught by a suture in the cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. We describe a very rare complication which is inadvertent surgical suturing of the PAC to the inferior vena cava that necessitated reopening the chest, cutting, the suture and removing the catheter.
  - 2,805 142
SJA is now on PubMed
Abdulhamid Al-Saeed
May-August 2010, 4(2):45-45
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65116  PMID:20927260
  - 2,104 223
Ultrasound guided femoral nerve block: An essential pain management modality in emergency settings for femur fractures
Dheeraj Kapoor, Sanjeev Palta
May-August 2010, 4(2):118-119
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65127  PMID:20927276
  - 2,856 188
Comparison of epidural ropivacaine and ropivacaine clonidine combination for elective cesarean sections
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Jasbir Kaur
May-August 2010, 4(2):47-54
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65119  PMID:20927262
Background and Aim: Neuraxial adjuvants augment the action of local anesthetics. The aim is to determine the qualitative and quantitative aspects of epidural block of ropivacaine 0.75% versus ropivacaine 0.75% with clonidine for elective cesarean section . Settings and Design: A randomized double-blind study was conducted among 51 healthy parturients, scheduled for elective cesarean section, at Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: Epidural block was administered with 20 ml of ropivacaine 0.75% (group R) and ropivacaine 0.75% and clonidine 75 μg (group RC) and anesthetic level was achieved minimum until T6-T7 dermatome. Onset time of analgesia, sensory and motor block levels, maternal heart rate and blood pressure, neonatal Apgar scores, postoperative analgesic dose and adverse events were recorded. Results: Fifty one patients were enrolled in this study and were subjected to statistical analysis. Groups were comparable with regard to demographic data, neonatal Apgar scores and incidences of side effects except for the higher incidence of dry mouth in patients of RC group. Onset of analgesia was much shorter in RC group along with prolonged duration of analgesia. The incidence of bradycardia and hypotension was more in RC group as compared to R group which was statistically significant. The dose requirement for postoperative pain relief was significantly lesser in RC group. Conclusions: The addition of 75 μg clonidine to isobaric epidural ropivacaine results in longer, complete and effective analgesia with similar block properties and helped to reduce the effective dose of ropivacaine when compared with plain ropivacaine for cesarean delivery.
  - 8,498 883