Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia

LETTERS TO EDITOR
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 561--562

Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity in paediatric patient: Tips to prevent


Renu Sinha, Nishant Patel, Kanil R Kumar 
 Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nishant Patel
Room Number 5013, 5th Floor, Teaching Block, Department of Anaesthesia, Pain Medicine and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India




How to cite this article:
Sinha R, Patel N, Kumar KR. Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity in paediatric patient: Tips to prevent.Saudi J Anaesth 2020;14:561-562


How to cite this URL:
Sinha R, Patel N, Kumar KR. Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity in paediatric patient: Tips to prevent. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 18 ];14:561-562
Available from: https://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2020/14/4/561/296003


Full Text



To,

The Editor

We read the correspondence “Pediatric eye block and local anesthetic systemic toxicity” written by Dr. Ana C. Mavarez et al. with great interest.[1] This article highlighted the local anaesthesia systemic toxicity (LAST), a preventable complication and its timely management in the paediatric patient.

We want to highlight few other points to prevent LAST in a child. The local anaesthetic (LA) dosing guidelines based on weight does not predict serum level of LA reliably and hence toxicity can occur lower than anticipated dose.[2] As the concentration of LA is one of the very important determinant factors to reduce LAST.

We are concern about the concentration of LA drugs used for this patient, i.e., 0.75% bupivacaine and 4% lignocaine (total 3 ml) at the start and end of the surgery.

As paediatric patients cannot cooperate, general anaesthesia is required along with local anaesthesia. The concentration of LA should be lower as it is required for analgesia not for anaesthesia in paediatric patient. Bupivacaine 0.25% and lidocaine 1% is safe for analgesia along with general anaesthesia. In the present case, author has used a higher concentration of LA leading to a higher dose of both the drugs and LAST.

Jean et al. also suggested weight-based submaximal dosing of LA in paediatric patients.[3] American society of regional anaesthesia guideline for neuraxial block advocates the use of the lowest concentration of local anaesthetics to prevent LAST. This principle can be applied to other peripheral nerve blocks.[4]

It is difficult to understand weight of 2-month-old child weighing 12 kg. It is not evident in the article whether subtenon or peribulbar block was administered before and after the surgery. The anatomy of the orbit gets distorted after enucleation; hence, it may increase incidence of complications.[5]

We suggest use a lower concentration of LA and try to avoid repeat block within 3–4 h of first block in paediatric patient to prevent LAST.[5]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Mavarez AC, Palte HD, Rodriguez LI. Pediatric eye block and local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Saudi J Anaesth 2020;14:287-8.
2Dickerson DM, Apfelbaum JL. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Aesthet Surg J 2014;34:1111-9.
3Jean Y, Kam D, Gayer S, Palte H, Stein A. Regional anesthesia for pediatric ophthalmic surgery: A review of the literature. Anesth Analg 2019;1. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004012.
4Neal JM, Bernards CM, Butterworth JF 4th, Di Gregorio G, Drasner K, Hejtmanek MR, et al. ASRA practice advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010;35:152-61.
5NYSORA. Local And Regional Anesthesia For Ophthalmic Surgery. NYSORA; 2020.