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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2021
Volume 15 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 249-374

Online since Saturday, June 19, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Special issue on “Thoracic anesthesia” Highly accessed article p. 249
Abdelazeem Eldawlatly
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_120_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: From physiology to clinical application in thoracic surgery Highly accessed article p. 250
Marc Licker, Andres Hagerman, Alexandre Jeleff, Raoul Schorer, Christoph Ellenberger
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1216_20  
More than 70 years after its original report, the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) response continues to spark scientific interest on its mechanisms and clinical implications, particularly for anesthesiologists involved in thoracic surgery. Selective airway intubation and one-lung ventilation (OLV) facilitates the surgical intervention on a collapsed lung while the HPV redirects blood flow from the “upper” non-ventilated hypoxic lung to the “dependent” ventilated lung. Therefore, by limiting intrapulmonary shunting and optimizing ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q) ratio, the fall in arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) is attenuated during OLV. The HPV involves a biphasic response mobilizing calcium within pulmonary vascular smooth muscles, which is activated within seconds after exposure to low alveolar oxygen pressure and that gradually disappears upon re-oxygenation. Many factors including acid-base balance, the degree of lung expansion, circulatory volemia as well as lung diseases and patient age affect HPV. Anesthetic agents, analgesics and cardiovascular medications may also interfer with HPV during the perioperative period. Since HPV represents the homeostatic mechanism for regional ventilation-to-perfusion matching and in turn, for optimal pulmonary oxygen uptake, a clear understanding of HPV is clinically relevant for all anesthesiologists.
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How can we minimize the risks by optimizing patient's condition shortly before thoracic surgery? p. 264
Christoph Ellenberger, Raoul Schorer, Benoit Bedat, Andres Hagerman, Frederic Triponez, Wolfram Karenovics, Marc Licker
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1098_20  
The “moderate-to-high-risk” surgical patient is typically older, frail, malnourished, suffering from multiple comorbidities and presenting with unhealthy life style such as smoking, hazardous drinking and sedentarity. Poor aerobic fitness, sarcopenia and “toxic” behaviors are modifiable risk factors for major postoperative complications. The physiological challenge of lung cancer surgery has been likened to running a marathon. Therefore, preoperative patient optimization or “ prehabilitation “ should become a key component of improved recovery pathways to enhance general health and physiological reserve prior to surgery. During the short preoperative period, the patients are more receptive and motivated to adhere to behavioral interventions (e.g., smoking cessation, weaning from alcohol, balanced food intake and active mobilization) and to follow a structured exercise training program. Sufficient protein intake should be ensured (1.5–2 g/kg/day) and nutritional defects should be corrected to restore muscle mass and strength. Currently, there is strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of various modalities of physical training (endurance training and/or respiratory muscle training) to enhance aerobic fitness and to mitigate the risk of pulmonary complications while reducing the hospital length of stay. Multimodal interventions should be individualized to the patient's condition. These bundle of care are more effective than single or sequential intervention owing to synergistic benefits of education, nutritional support and physical training. An effective prehabilitation program is necessarily patient-centred and coordinated among health care professionals (nurses, primary care physician, physiotherapists, nutritionists) to help the patient regain some control over the disease process and improve the physiological reserve to sustain surgical stress.
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Lung separation in adult thoracic anesthesia p. 272
Isabelle Huybrechts, Turgay Tuna, Laszlo L Szegedi
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_78_21  
Thoracic anesthesia is mainly the world of OLV during anesthesia. The indications for OLV, classified as absolute or relative are more representative of the new concepts in OLV: It includes either the separation or the isolation of the lungs. Modern DLTs are most widely employed worldwide to perform OLV including the concept of one lung separation. Endobronchial blockers are a valid alternative to DLTs, and they are mandatory in the education of lung separation and in case of predicted difficult airways as they are the safest approach (with an awake intubation with an SLT through a FOB). Every general anesthesiologist should know how to insert a left-sided DLT, but he/she should also have in his technical luggage and toolbox, basic knowledge and minimal expertise with BBs, this option being considered a suitable alternative, particularly in emergency situation where the patient is already intubated and/or in case of difficult airways. One should keep in mind that extubation or re-intubation after DLT might be difficult too, and additional intubation tools are necessary for the safety conditions.
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Double lumen tube: Size and insertion depth p. 280
Abdelazeem A Eldawlatly
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_192_21  
Double lumen tubes (DLTs) are most commonly used to achieve one lung ventilation (OLV) in most thoracic surgical procedures unless contraindicated. Left-sided DLT (LDLT) is most commonly used nowadays for most thoracic surgical procedures. Though, the use of LDLT dates long back in history, two clinical and technical issues are yet to be resolved. The first issue is the ideal size of DLT which is defined as that which provides near-complete seal of the bronchial lumen without cuff inflation. There are no guidelines in literature which help in selecting the size of DLT. However, general consensus among thoracic anesthesiologists recommends the use of smaller sizes to avoid airway trauma. In our practice and for the last few years, we are using smaller size LDLT 35 F for females and 37 F for males with minimal airway trauma and had encouraging results. The second issue is the insertion depth of the LDLT. We have introduced a height-based formula to predict the insertion depth of LDLT with encouraging results. However, even with the use of the formula, we still recommend the use of fiberoptic bronchoscopic confirmation method for final positioning of the LDLT.
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Anesthesia for thoracic surgery in infants and children p. 283
Teresa M Murray-Torres, Peter D Winch, Aymen N Naguib, Joseph D Tobias
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_350_20  
The management of infants and children presenting for thoracic surgery poses a variety of challenges for anesthesiologists. A thorough understanding of the implications of developmental changes in cardiopulmonary anatomy and physiology, associated comorbid conditions, and the proposed surgical intervention is essential in order to provide safe and effective clinical care. This narrative review discusses the perioperative anesthetic management of pediatric patients undergoing noncardiac thoracic surgery, beginning with the preoperative assessment. The considerations for the implementation and management of one-lung ventilation (OLV) will be reviewed, and as will the anesthetic implications of different surgical procedures including bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, thoracotomy, and thoracoscopy. We will also discuss pediatric-specific disease processes presenting in neonates, infants, and children, with an emphasis on those with unique impact on anesthetic management.
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Difficult lung separation. An insight into the challenges faced during COVID-19 pandemic p. 300
Alaa M Khidr, Mohamed R El Tahan
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1086_20  
Difficult lung isolation or separation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery using one-lung ventilation might be attributed to upper airway difficulty or abnormal anatomy of the lower airway. Additionally, adequate deflation of the surgical lung can impair surgical exposure. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a harmful consequence for both patients and anesthesiologists. Management of patients with difficult lung isolation can be challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. Careful planning and preparation, preoperative routine testing, protective personal equipment, standard safety measures, proper preoxygenation, and individualize the patients care are required for successful lung separation. A systematic approach for management of difficult lung separation is centered around securing the airway and providing adequate ventilation using either a blocker or double-lumen tube. Several measures are described to expedite lung collapse.
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Inhalational versus intravenous anesthetics during one lung ventilation in elective thoracic surgeries: A narrative review p. 312
Swapnil Parab, Sheetal Gaikwad, Saratchandra Majeti
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1106_20  
The anesthesia regimen used during one lung ventilation (OLV) carry the potential to affect intra-operative course and post-operative outcomes, by its effects on pulmonary vasculature and alveolar inflammation. This narrative review aims to understand the pathophysiology of acute lung injury during one lung ventilation, and to study the effects of inhalational versus intravenous anaesthetics on intraoperative and post-operative outcomes, following thoracic surgery. For this purpose, we independently searched 'PubMed', 'Google Scholar' and 'Cochrane Central' databases to find out randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in English language, which compared the effects of intravenous versus inhalational anaesthetics on intraoperative and post-operative outcomes, in elective thoracic surgeries, in human beings. In total, 38 RCTs were included in this review. Salient results of the review are- Propofol reduced intraoperative shunt and maintained better intraoperative oxygenation than inhalational agents. However, use of modern inhalational anaesthetics during OLV reduced alveolar inflammation significantly, as compared to propofol. Regarding post-operative complications, the evidence is not conclusive enough but slightly in favour of inhalational anaesthetics. Thus, we conclude that modern inhalational anaesthetics, by their virtue of better anti-inflammatory properties, exhibit lung protective effects and hence, seem to be safe for maintenance of anesthesia during OLV in elective thoracic surgeries. Further research is required to establish the safety of these agents with respect to long term post-operative outcomes like cancer recurrence.
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Restricted, optimized or liberal fluid strategy in thoracic surgery: A narrative review p. 324
Marc Licker, Andres Hagerman, Benoit Bedat, Christoph Ellenberger, Frederic Triponez, Raoul Schorer, Wolfram Karenovics
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1155_20  
Perioperative fluid balance has a major impact on clinical and functional outcome, regardless of the type of interventions. In thoracic surgery, patients are more vulnerable to intravenous fluid overload and to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and other complications. New insight has been gained on the mechanisms causing pulmonary complications and the role of the endothelial glycocalix layer to control fluid transfer from the intravascular to the interstitial spaces and to promote tissue blood flow. With the implementation of standardized processes of care, the preoperative fasting period has become shorter, surgical approaches are less invasive and patients are allowed to resume oral intake shortly after surgery. Intraoperatively, body fluid homeostasis and adequate tissue oxygen delivery can be achieved using a normovolemic therapy targeting a “near-zero fluid balance” or a goal-directed hemodynamic therapy to maximize stroke volume and oxygen delivery according to the Franck–Starling relationship. In both fluid strategies, the use of cardiovascular drugs is advocated to counteract the anesthetic-induced vasorelaxation and maintain arterial pressure whereas fluid intake is limited to avoid cumulative fluid balance exceeding 1 liter and body weight gain (~1-1.5 kg). Modern hemodynamic monitors provide valuable physiological parameters to assess patient volume responsiveness and circulatory flow while guiding fluid administration and cardiovascular drug therapy. Given the lack of randomized clinical trials, controversial debate still surrounds the issues of the optimal fluid strategy and the type of fluids (crystalloids versus colloids). To avoid the risk of lung hydrostatic or inflammatory edema and to enhance the postoperative recovery process, fluid administration should be prescribed as any drug, adapted to the patient's requirement and the context of thoracic intervention.
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Impact of regional analgesia techniques on the long-term clinical outcomes following thoracic surgery p. 335
Alaa M Khidr, Mert Senturk, Mohamed R El-Tahan
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1178_20  
Continuous monitoring of clinical outcomes after thoracotomy is very important to improve medical services and to reduce complications. The use of regional analgesia techniques for thoracotomy offers several advantages in the perioperative period including effective pain control, reduced opioid consumption and associated side effects, enhanced recovery, and improved patient satisfaction. Postthoracotomy complications, such as chronic postthoracotomy pain syndrome, postthoracotomy ipsilateral shoulder pain, pulmonary complications, recurrence, and unplanned admission to the intensive care unit are frequent and may be associated with poor outcomes and mortality. The role of regional techniques to reduce the incidence of these complications is questionable. This narrative review aims to investigate the impact of regional analgesia on the long-term clinical outcomes after thoracotomy.
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Post-thoracotomy analgesia p. 341
Desimir Mijatovic, Tarun Bhalla, Ibrahim Farid
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_743_20  
Thoracotomy is considered one of the most painful operative procedures. Due to anatomical complexity, post-thoracotomy pain requires multimodal perioperative treatment to adequately manage to ensure proper postoperative recovery. There are several different strategies to control post-thoracotomy pain including interventional techniques, such as neuraxial and regional injections, and conservative treatments including medications, massage therapy, respiratory therapy, and physical therapy. This article describes different strategies and evidence base for their use.
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Enhanced recovery after thoracic anesthesia p. 348
Mert Senturk, Zerrin Sungur
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_1182_20  
Anesthesiology has always been one of the most important components of the multidisciplinary perioperative approaches, which is also valid for ERAS. There are several guidelines published on the enhanced recovery after thoracic surgery (ERATS). This article focuses on the “official” ERATS protocols of a joint consensus of two different societies. Regarding thoracic anesthesia, there are some challenges to be dealt with. The first challenge, although there is a large number of studies published on thoracic anesthesia, only a very few of them have studied the overall outcome and quality of recovery; and only few of them were powered enough to provide sufficient evidence. This has led to the fact that some components of the protocol are debatable. The second challenge, the adherence to individual elements and the overall compliance are poorly reported and also hard to apply even in the best organized centers. This article explains and discusses the debatable viewpoints on the elements of the ERATS protocol published in 2019 aiming to achieve a list for the future steps required for a more effective and evidence-based ERATS protocol.
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Anesthesia for robotic thoracic surgery p. 356
Kimberly Gonsette, Turgay Tuna, Laszlo L Szegedi
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_54_21  
The management of the robotic thoracic surgical patient requires the knowledge of minimally invasive surgery techniques involving the chest. Over the past decade, robotic-assisted thoracic surgery has grown, and, in the future, it will take an important place in the treatment of complex thoracic pathologies. The enhanced dexterity and three-dimensional visualization make it possible to do this in the small space of the thoracic cavity. Familiarity with the robotic surgical system by the anesthesiologists is mandatory. Management of a long period of one-lung ventilation with a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube or an independent bronchial blocker is required, along with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy techniques (best continuous monitoring). Correct patient positioning and prevention of complications such as eye or nerve or crashing injuries while the robotic system is used is mandatory. Recognition of the hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide during insufflation in the chest is required. Cost is higher and outcome is not yet demonstrated to be better as compared to video-assisted thoracic surgery. The possibility for conversion to open thoracotomy should also be kept in mind. Teamwork is mandatory, as well as good communication between all the actors of the operating theatre.
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Non intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections (NI-VATS) in COVID times p. 362
H Aymerich, C Bonome, D González-Rivas
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_421_21  
The emergence of epidemic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 in Wuhan, China causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its rapid expansion around the world, leading to a global pandemic of dimensions not observed at least since the “Spanish influenza” pandemic in 1917-18, has had great consequences at all levels, including social, health and economic spheres. This pandemic situation forces us, as health care workers, to redefine our medical and surgical actions to adapt them to this new reality. It is important, when the rules of the game change, to rethink and to reevaluate if the balance between risk and benefit have moved to a different point of equilibrium, and if our indications of certain surgical interventions need to be redefined. In this article we try to answer the doubts that arise about the suitability of the NI-VATS technique and assess whether its use in these new pandemic circumstances might add advantages, especially in relation to minimize the risks of virus contagion between patients and all healthcare personnel during the surgical procedure, as well as the known advantages described in many articles the last ten years.
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Education in thoracic anesthesia. Lessons learned from the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) programs p. 368
Alaa M Khidr, Mohamed R El-Tahan
DOI:10.4103/sja.sja_953_20  
Technology advancements provide several surgical approaches including thoracoscopic and robotic-assisted thoracic surgery. That adds more challenges for the thoracic anesthesiologists with the required high-level of skills and competencies in the anesthetic, airway management, lung isolation and separation, ventilation, and perioperative analgesic techniques. Thoracic anesthesia has gained the attraction of many anesthesiologists to being specialized in that subspecialty. That raise the concerns about the requirements and structure of formal training into thoracic anesthesia in the United States and Europe regarding. This narrative review aims to analyze the lessons learned from the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) in terms of the current situation, requirements, limitations, competencies, teaching techniques, assessment, and certification.
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