Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 306-313

Physiologic and pharmacologic considerations in morbid obesity and bariatric anesthesia

1 Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, USA
2 Anesthesiology Resident, LSU Health New Orleans, 433 Bolivar St, New Orleans, LA, USA
3 Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, USA
4 Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Elyse M Cornett
Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.sja_185_22

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Obesity is a growing worldwide health hazard that is characterized by excess malnutrition. Excess food intake leads to dysregulated energy homeostasis and increased adiposity, activating pro-inflammatory physiologic pathways that can contribute to the chronic inflammatory state associated with many chronic illnesses. Obesity is a preventable illness, but its multifaceted etiology, including genetic, behavioral, and environmental variables, is critical to understanding its epidemiology and pathophysiology. Obesity is a critical predisposing factor for illnesses including type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, with higher morbidity and death. Obesity rates are rising, and so will the need for perioperative anesthesia for subjects with obesity. Obesity epidemiology, biochemistry, and pathophysiology are significant concepts in perioperative anesthesia management for subjects with obesity. To provide optimal intraoperative care for subjects with obesity, preoperative cardiovascular assessment for coronary artery disease and drug monitoring is required. Individuals suffering from obesity have significantly higher oxygen consumption rates and a higher risk of desaturation and surgical complications. Individuals suffering from obesity require specialized perioperative treatment related to higher prevalence of perioperative complications.

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