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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 253-254

Continuous erector spinae plane block in paediatric patient undergoing thoracotomy surgery


1 Department of Anaesthesiology, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Trauma and Emergency, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Amarjeet Kumar
Room No 503, Hostel 11, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sja.sja_820_21

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Date of Submission25-Nov-2021
Date of Decision26-Nov-2021
Date of Acceptance26-Nov-2021
Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2022
 


How to cite this article:
Kumari P, Kumar A, Sinha C, Kumar A, Ghosh S. Continuous erector spinae plane block in paediatric patient undergoing thoracotomy surgery. Saudi J Anaesth 2022;16:253-4

How to cite this URL:
Kumari P, Kumar A, Sinha C, Kumar A, Ghosh S. Continuous erector spinae plane block in paediatric patient undergoing thoracotomy surgery. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 4];16:253-4. Available from: https://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2022/16/2/253/339862



The ESP block is a novel block during which an area local anesthetic is deposited between the erector spinae muscle and the underlying transverse process. It is an easier technique than the ultrasound-guided paravertebral block, which is technically challenging, time-consuming, and related to important risks.[1] We describe two cases of thoracotomy surgery performing ultrasound-guided continuous erector spine plane (ESP). In both cases, we obtained parental informed consent for publication. Case 1 was of a 2-year-old male child weighing 10 kg ASA I having empyema thoracis scheduled for thoracotomy under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia, continuous ESPB was performed at the level of the T5 transverse process. After placing a linear USG probe (M-Turbo, Fujifilm Sonosite, Inc, Bothell, WA, USA) parallel to the vertebral axis, we found the T5 transverse process and three associated muscles (trapezius, rhomboid major, erector spinae muscle). From this point, a 19-G Tuohy needle was inserted toward the three muscles and the transverse process of T5 in a cephalad-to-caudal direction. We administered two ml saline to confirm the location of the needle (deep to ESP). Thereafter 5 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected. This also facilitated the insertion of epidural catheter in the desired plane. We fixed the catheter using double tunnelling [Figure 1] with 2 cm of the catheter in the fascial plane between the muscle and transverse process. Double-tunneling allows the catheter to circle the bridge of skin created between two loops of the catheter. Catheter dislodgement is prevented due to the tightening of the bridge of the skin in case any untoward force pulls it. Intraoperatively, hemodynamically stable no systemic analgesics were needed apart from the scheduled paracetamol. The patient was extubated, and emergence from anesthesia was uneventful. He had a maximum FLACC (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability) scale score of 1 in 24 h. Postoperative multimodal analgesia consisted of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg every 6 h combined with an intermittent bolus dose of bupivacaine 0.125% 5 ml injected via an indwelling catheter every 8 h for 3 days. He was discharged without any complications. Case 2 was of a 5-year-old male child weighing 14 kg having hydatid cyst ASA I who was scheduled for thoracotomy under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia, ultrasound-guided ESPB was performed; postoperative multimodal analgesia was performed according to the acute pain service protocol of our hospital, as in Case 1. The FLACC score was maintained between 0 and 1 for a week after surgery. The patient was discharged without any complications.
Figure 1: Ultrasound image showing the needle (arrow) on the top of the transverse process T5. ESM: erector spinae muscle, RMM: Rhomboid major muscle, TM: Trapezius muscle, TP5: transverse process of T5. Catheter fixation double tunneling method

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The use of the ESP block is limited to the thoracic region in the pediatric population, and to date, there is no recommendation about the optimal dose of local anesthetic for use in an ESP block in children. Hernandez et al.[2] used a volume of 0.2 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine to perform an ESP block for inguinal hernia repair in a 2-month-old male patient. They also reported that adequate anesthetic spread and analgesia with a volume of 0.2–0.3 ml/kg in pediatric patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Continuous ESP block as an adjunct to general anesthesia provides effective surgical analgesia and satisfactory postoperative pain control in pediatric thoracotomy surgery.

Consent

Taken from the parent.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Forero M, Adhikary SD, Lopez H, Tsui C, Chin KJ. The erector spinae plane block: A novel analgesic technique in thoracic neuropathic pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2016;41:621-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Hernandez MA, Palazzi L, Lapalma J, Forero M, Chin KJ. Erector spinae plane block for surgery of theposterior thoracic wall in a pediatric patient. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2018;43:217-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    


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