Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 435-440

Pediatric perioperative fluid management

Department of Anaesthesia, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Ekta Rai
Pediatric Anaesthesia Fellowship (Singapore), Professor in Anaesthesia, Head of Pediatric and Obstetrics-Gynaecology Anaesthesia, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu - 632 004
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.sja_140_21

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Appropriate fluid management is vital for adequate tissue perfusion and balancing the internal milieu especially in perioperative settings and critically ill children. Pediatric population is heterogeneous so one formula may not suffice and hence both the quantitative and qualitative perspective of fluid management should be based on physiology and pathology of the child along with their perioperative needs. In perioperative setup, the fluid is administered to meet fluid deficits (fasting, and other daily based losses), blood losses and third space losses. Anesthetists have always followed pediatric maintenance fluid calculations based on Holiday and Segar formula; based on studies conducted on healthy children more than 70 years ago. Recently, there has been a lot of debate about this concept, especially as there are serious concerns regarding the development of complications like hyponatremia and hyperglycemia, both of which can result in neurological damage or even mortality in a sick child. This review is an attempt to provide a historical perspective and current evidence-based approach to peri-operative pediatric fluid management. We performed a PUBMED search for articles using keywords including 'children', 'intravenous fluid therapy', 'crystalloids', 'colloids', 'fluid homeostasis', 'blood loss', 'estimation of blood loss', 'blood loss management', 'perioperative fluid ' to get our source articles.

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