Year : 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 221-223

Acute compartment syndrome due to extravasation of peripheral intravenous blood transfusion

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Hyuckgoo Kim
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Hyeonchung-ro, 170, Nam-gu, Daegu - 705-703
Republic of Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.SJA_565_19

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Extravasation is an inadvertent injection or leakage of fluid and drugs in the extravascular or subcutaneous space. The extravasation by massive transfused blood results in the elevation of intra-compartmental pressures. Severely increased pressure may lead to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). A 50-year-old man underwent craniectomy for traumatic subdural hemorrhage of the brain. During intraoperative periods, the blood components were transfused by rapid transfusion device and manual pressurized pumping through the central and peripheral lines because of hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock. Approximately 30 minutes after transfusion, we found a hardened right low leg that was obscured by the surgical drape. Immediately, fasciotomy was performed to release all four compartments. The early recognition and treatment of ACS were important factors contributing to anatomical structure salvage and preservation of function. Anesthesia providers should check the site of the insertion of the intravenous catheter, especially while pressurized massive transfusion via the peripheral intravenous catheter.

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