Year : 2018  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 198-203

A prospective randomized study on the impact of low-dose dexamethasone on perioperative blood glucose concentrations in diabetics and nondiabetics

Department of Anaesthesiology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vinayak Seenappa Pujari
Department of Anaesthesiology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, New Bel Road, MSR Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 054, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sja.SJA_409_17

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Background: Dexamethasone is a potent corticosteroid when administered alone or in combination alone has proven efficacious in preventing nausea and vomiting (PONV) perioperatively. However, the administration of even a single dose has been associated with hyperglycemia. This is the first study that evaluates the effect of two low-doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg) on blood glucose concentrations among diabetics and nondiabetics in patients who have received spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance and patient consent, 180 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1–3 patients undergoing the elective infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anesthesia aged between 18 and 70 years were included in this study. Ninety diabetic patients were allotted to the diabetic group (DM), and ninety nondiabetic patients were allotted to the nondiabetic group (ND). Group DM was divided into three subgroups DM0, DM4, and DM8. Group ND was divided into three subgroups ND0, ND4, and ND8. The patients in groups DM0 and ND0 served as controls. The patients in groups DM4 and ND4 received 4 mg dexamethasone. The patients in groups DM8 and ND8 received 8 mg dexamethasone. The blood glucose concentrations were monitored at 0 (baseline),1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 h after giving the drug. Results: The baseline blood glucose values were higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetics (128.57 ± 22.26 vs 94.99 ± 12.82 mg/dL). There was a statistically significant increase in blood glucose concentrations in both diabetics and nondiabetics who received dexamethasone. The rise of blood glucose from baseline was similar in both diabetics and nondiabetics. Conclusion: The maximum rise in blood glucose was in the range of 40–45 mg/dl in the patients who received dexamethasone. The clinician should use his clinical judgment before administering dexamethasone for PONV prophylaxis/treatment.

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