Development and validation of Arabic version of the douleur neuropathique 4 questionnaire
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi1, Abdullah Abolkhair2, Bouhassira Didier3, Tariq Alzhahrani4, Mazen Alsohaibani5, Yazzed Sulieman Terkawi6, Yousuf Almoqbali2, Yasser Younis Tolba2, Evelyn Pangililan2, Farida Foula2, Siny Tsang7
1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, OH, USA
2 Department of Anesthesiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Inserm U987, Hopital Ambroise-Pare, Boulogne-Billancourt; Universite Versailles-Saint-Quentin, Versailles, France
4 Department of Anesthesiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 School of Medicine, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
7 Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: The douleur neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire is a widely used tool for diagnosis of neuropathic pain (NP). The aim was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the DN4 questionnaire in Arabic.
Methods: A systematic translation process was used to translate the original English DN4 into Arabic. After the pilot study, the Arabic version was validated among patients with chronic pain in two tertiary care centers. The reliability of the translated version was examined using internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and intraclass correlation coefficients. We examined the validity of the Arabic DN4 via construct validity, concurrent validity (associations with the numeric rating scale, brief pain inventory, and Self-Completed Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs [S-LANSS]), face validity, and diagnostic validity. To investigate the responsiveness, the translated DN4 was administered twice among the same group of patients.
Results: A total of 142 subjects (68 men, 74 women) were included in the study. Cronbach's α was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.75), and interclass correlation coefficients was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76–0.87). The DN4 was moderately associated with the S-LANSS questionnaire. Results showed our Arabic DN4 to have good diagnostic accuracy, with area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.82–0.94). As with the original version, a score of ≥4 was found to be the best cut-off for the diagnosis of NP, with a sensitivity of 88.31%, specificity of 74.47%, a positive predictive value of 85%, and a negative predictive value of 80%. Most patients found the DN4 questionnaire to be clear and easy to understand, and thought the questionnaire items covered all their problem areas regarding their pain.
Conclusion: Our Arabic version of the DN4 is a reliable and valid screening tool that can be easily administered among patients to differentiate between NP and non-NP.