Development and validation of Arabic version of the Short-Form Mcgill Pain Questionnaire
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi1, Siny Tsang2, Abdullah Abolkhair3, Mohammed Alsharif3, Mousa Alswiti4, Adwa Alsadoun5, Usama Saleh AlZoraigi4, Saleh F Aldhahri6, Tariq Al-Zhahrani7, Khaild Ali Altirkawi8
1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, OH, USA
2 Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, USA
3 Department of Anesthesiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Medical/Surgical Nursing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Otolaryngology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Anesthesiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
8 Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, 1215, Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) is a widely used tool for qualitative and quantitative pain assessment. Our aim was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the SF-MPQ in Arabic.
Methods: A systematic translation process was used to translate the original English SF-MPQ into Arabic. After the pilot study, we validated our version in patients with chronic pain at two tertiary care centers. We tested the reliability of our version using internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We examined the validity by assessing construct validity, concurrent validity (by investigating the associations between SF-MPQ, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI], and Self-completed Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs [S-LANSS]), and face validity. The questionnaire was administered twice to examine responsiveness.
Results: A total of 142 participants (68 men and 74 women) were included in this study. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.81– 0.89), and interclass correlation coefficients were 0.71 (0.62–0.79) for the whole scale. SF-MPQ was moderately associated with patients' present pain (r = 0.55, P< 0.001) and the numerical rating scale (r = 0.42, P< 0.001). The total pain score was moderately correlated with pain severity and interference assessed with the BPI (rs = 0.39 to 0.49, all Ps < 0.001). SF-MPQ total pain score was weakly associated with neuropathic pain assessed with S-LANSS (r = 0.26, P< 0.01). Most patients found the SF-MPQ questions to be clear and easy to understand and thought the questionnaire items covered all their problem areas regarding their pain.
Conclusion: Our translated version of SF-MPQ was reliable and valid for use among Arabic-speaking patients. The SF-MPQ is a good qualitative and quantitative assessment tool for pain but is only weakly associated with neuropathic pain.