Year : 2016  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 384-389

Efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine in pediatric caudal epidural block

Department of Anesthesiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sadik Mohammed
Near Mohammedi Masjid, Hanuman Ji Ki Bhakhari, Nai Sarak, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 342001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.177325

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Context: Caudal analgesia is a reliable and an easy method to provide intraoperative and postoperative analgesia for infraumbilical surgeries in pediatric population but with the disadvantage of short duration of action after single injection. Many additives were used in combination with local anesthetics in the caudal block to prolong the postoperative analgesia. Aim: We compared the analgesic effects and side effects of dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine in pediatric patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Settings and Design: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (2-10 years) were evenly and randomly assigned into two groups in a double-blinded manner. After sevoflurane in oxygen anesthesia, each patient received a single caudal dose of ropivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) combined with either dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg in normal saline 0.5 ml, or corresponding volume of normal saline according to group assignment. Hemodynamic variables, end-tidal sevoflurane, and emergence time were monitored. Postoperative analgesia, requirement of additional analgesic, sedation, and side effects were assessed during the first 24 h. Results: The duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer (P = 0.001) and total consumption of rescue analgesic was significantly lower in Group RD compared with Group R (P < 0.05). Group RD have better quality of sleep and prolonged duration of sedation (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of hemodynamic changes or side effects. Conclusion: Addition of dexmedetomidine to caudal ropivacaine significantly prolongs analgesia in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries without an increase in the incidence of side effects.

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