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   2014| January-March  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 1, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Clonidine for management of chronic pain: A brief review of the current evidences
Anil Kumar, Souvik Maitra, Puneet Khanna, Dalim Kumar Baidya
January-March 2014, 8(1):92-96
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125955  PMID:24665248
Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, has well-established role in acute perioperative pain management. However, recently it has found increasing use in chronic pain conditions as well. In this review, we systematically searched and analyzed the clinical studies from "PubMed," "PubMed central" and "Scopus" database for use of clonidine in the chronic pain. Quantitative meta-analysis was not possible as clonidine has been used in various patient populations through different routes. However, qualitative analysis of nearly thirty clinical studies provides some evidence that clonidine administered through epidural, intrathecal and local/topical route may be effective in chronic pain conditions where neuropathy is a predominant component. It may also be effective where opioids are of limited use due to inadequate pain relief or adverse effects.
  11,751 470 3
CASE REPORTS
Airway management in a patient with Le Fort III Fracture
Maroun B Ghabach, Myriam A Abou Rouphael, Caroline E Roumoulian, May R Helou
January-March 2014, 8(1):128-130
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125974  PMID:24665254
Maxillofacial fractures present unique airway problem to the anesthesiologist. Patients with LeFort III fractures are at great risk of requiring emergent airway control due to midface instability and oropharyngeal airway obstruction. We present a case where difficult intubation was managed with close cooperation between the anesthesiologist and the surgeon.
  8,253 349 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pre-hospital and initial management of head injury patients: An update
Tumul Chowdhury, Stephen Kowalski, Yaseen Arabi, Hari Hara Dash
January-March 2014, 8(1):114-120
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125971  PMID:24665251
Background: Most of the bad outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the presence of a high incidence of pre-hospital secondary brain insults. Therefore, knowledge of these variables and timely management of the disease at the pre-hospital period can significantly improve the outcome and decrease the mortality. The Brain Trauma Foundation guideline on "Prehospital Management" published in 2008 could provide the standardized protocols for the management of patients with TBI; however, this guideline has included the relevant papers up to 2006. Methods: A PubMed search for relevant clinical trials and reviews (from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2013), which specifically discussed about the topic, was conducted. Results: Based on the evidence, majority of the management strategies comprise of rapid correction of hypoxemia and hypotension, the two most important predictors for mortality. However, there is still a need to define the goals for the management of hypotension and inclusion of newer difficult airway carts as well as proper monitoring devices for ensuring better intubation and ventilatory management. Isotonic saline should be used as the first choice for fluid resuscitation. The pre-hospital hypothermia has more adverse effects; therefore, this should be avoided. Conclusion: Most of the management trials published after 2007 have focused mainly on the treatment as well as the prevention strategies for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI.
  4,678 626 2
When place and time matter: How to conduct safe inter-hospital transfer of patients
Divya Sethi, Shalini Subramanian
January-March 2014, 8(1):104-113
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125964  PMID:24665250
Inter-hospital transfer (IHT) of patients is often needed for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. However, the transfer process carries its own risks as a poorly and hastily conducted transfer could lead to adverse events. In this article, we have reviewed literature on the key elements of IHT process including pre-transfer patient stabilization. We have also discussed various modes of transfer, physiological effects of transfer, possible adverse events and how to avoid or mitigate these. Even critically ill-patients can be transported safely by experienced and trained personnel using appropriate equipment. The patient must be maximally stabilized prior to transfer though complete optimization may be possible only at the receiving hospital. Ground or air transport may be employed depending on the urgency, feasibility and availability. Meticulous pre-transfer check and adherence to standard protocols during the transfer will help keep the entire process smooth and event free. The transport team should be trained to anticipate and manage any possible adverse events, medical or technical, during the transfer. Coordination between the referring and receiving hospitals would facilitate prompt transfer to the definitive destination avoiding delay at the emergency or casualty. Documentation of the transfer process and transfer of medical record and investigation reports are important for maintaining continuity of medical care and for medico-legal purposes.
  4,963 252 4
Anesthetic management of descending thoracic aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease: Our experience
Anjum Saiyed, Reema Meena, Indu Verma, CK Vyas
January-March 2014, 8(1):97-103
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125958  PMID:24665249
Background: Complete obstruction of the abdominal aorta at the renal artery level is a difficult surgical problem. Aortic clamping and declamping can lead to profound haemodynamic changes, myocardial infarction, ventricular failure or even death may result. These complications are important challenges in anesthetic management of these patients. Methods :0 Between August, 2010 and April, 2012, descending thoracic aorta to femoral artery bypass grafting was used to revascularize lower limbs in 11 patients in our institute. The anesthetic management of these patients is described here. Epidural catheter placement was done in T 5-6 or T 6-7 space for post operative pain relief. Induction was done by, Inj. Glycopyrolate 0.2 mg, Inj. Fentanyl 5 μg/kg., Inj. Pentothal sodium 5 mg/kg, Inj. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg, IPPV done. Left sided double lumen tube was inserted, Maintenance of Anesthesia was done by O 2 + N 2 O (30:70). Increments of Vecuronium and Fentanyl were given Monitoring of Heart rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure were continuously displayed. The available pharmacological agents were used when there is deviation of more than 15% from base line. Results: In our study, inspite of measures taken to control rise in blood pressure during aortic cross clamping, a rise of 90 mm of Hg in one patient and 60-80 mm of Hg in four patients was observed, which was managed by sodium nitropruside infusion. At the end of surgery seven patients were extubated on the operation table. In remaining four patients DLT was replaced by single lumen endotracheal tube and were shifted to ICU on IPPV. They weaned off gradually in 3-5 hours. In our series blood loss was 400 ml to 1000 ml. There was no mortality in the first 24 hours. Postoperative bleeding was reported in one case which was re-explored and stood well. Conclusion: The anesthetic technique during aortic surgery is directed at minimizing the hemodynamic effects of cross clamping in order to maintain the myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio.
  4,707 187 -
CASE REPORTS
Anesthesia for tracheostomy for huge maxillofacial tumor
Abeer A Arab, Waleed A Almarakbi, Mazen S Faden, Wadeeah K Bahaziq
January-March 2014, 8(1):124-127
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125973  PMID:24665253
Providing sedation for patients with compromised upper airway is challenging. A 19-year-old female patient with huge maxillofacial tumor invading the whole pharynx scheduled for elective tracheostomy under local anesthesia due to compromised airway. The patient had gastrostomy tube for feeding. Venous cannulation was totally refused by the patient after repeated trials for exhausted sclerosed veins. Pre-operative mixture of dexmedetomidine with ketamine was administered through the gastrostomy tube with eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream application over the planned tracheostomy site. The patient was sedated with eye opening to command. Local infiltration followed by tracheostomy was performed without patient complaints or recall of operative events.
  3,359 143 -
Spontaneous migration of central venous catheter tip following extubation
Balaji Prabaharan, Sara Thomas
January-March 2014, 8(1):131-133
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125975  PMID:24665255
Migration of the tip of central venous catheters is not an uncommon event and the mechanism for this is not clear. Increased intrathoracic pressure due to coughing, sneezing or weight lifting, changing the body position or physical movements such as abduction or adduction of the arms is thought to be the cause of such migration. We present here a case of a patient with a port catheter tip that migrated from the left subclavian to the superior vene cava following extubation.
  3,324 103 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lornoxicam versus tramadol for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT procedures
Ashraf A Abdelhalim, Sami Al harethy, Mohamed Moustafa
January-March 2014, 8(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125935  PMID:24665238
Background: Pain following ear-nose and throat surgery is one of the most important complaints for which, several drugs are used. This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was designed to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol versus lornoxicam for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of ASA class I-II, who had undergone elective ENT surgical procedures under general anesthesia, were assigned in a randomized manner into three equal groups. Group L received lornoxicam8 mg IV, Group T received tramadol 1 mg/kg IV and Group C received IV saline after induction of anesthesia before the start of the surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and sedation level was evaluated during stay in the post-anesthesia care unit with a four-point sedation scale. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated using the Five-Point Scale. Adverse events in the first 24 h post-operative were recorded. Results: The VAS pain scores were significantly higher in Group C as compared with those in Groups L and T at 30 min and 1, 2, 4and 6 h post-operatively, with no significant difference between Group L and Group T. The amount of morphine consumption post-operatively was significantly lower in Group L (5.2 ± 2.5 mg) and Group T (5.0 ± 2.0 mg) as compared with that in Group C (7.4 ± 2.3 mg) (P = 0.001). The time for the first analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group L (92.62 ± 24.23 min) and Group T (88 ± 21.43 min) as compared with that in Group C (42.82 ± 25.61 min), with no significant difference between the other two groups. Estimated intraoperative blood loss score by the surgeons showed no significant difference between the three groups. The most frequent side-effects in the three groups were nausea and vomiting, and their incidence was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with the other two groups. Conclusion: Tramadol 1 mg/kg was comparable to lornoxicam 8 mg for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures; both drugs helped to reduce the post-operative opioid requirement and consequently minimized the related adverse effects of the opioids.
  3,149 243 -
Low-dose ketamine infusion for labor analgesia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial
Sam Joel, Anita Joselyn, Verghese T Cherian, Amar Nandhakumar, Nithin Raju, Ilamurugu Kaliaperumal
January-March 2014, 8(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125897  PMID:24665232
Background: Most primary and secondary level hospitals in developing countries provide inadequate labor analgesia due to various medical, technical and economic reasons. This clinical trial was an effort to study the efficacy, safety and feasibility of intravenous (IV) ketamine to provide labor analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 parturients were consented and randomly assigned to receive either IV ketamine or 0.9% saline. A loading dose of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg) was followed-by an infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h) until the delivery of the neonate. Similar volume of saline was infused in the placebo-group. Intramuscular meperidine was the rescue analgesic in both groups. The pain score, hemodynamic parameters of mother and fetus and the anticipated side-effects of ketamine were observed for. The newborn was assessed by the Neonatologist. Results: The pain score showed a decreasing trend in the ketamine group and after the 1 st h more than 60% of women in the ketamine group had pain relief, which was statistically significant. There was no significant clinical change in the maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate. However, 17 (48.5%) of them had transient light headedness in the ketamine group. All the neonates were breast fed and the umbilical cord blood pH was between 7.1 and 7.2. The overall satisfaction was significantly high in the intervention group (P = 0.028). Conclusion: A low-dose ketamine infusion (loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg delivered over 30 min, followed-by an infusion at 0.2 mg/kg/h) could provide acceptable analgesia during labor and delivery.
  2,977 410 -
Use of oral tramadol to prevent perianesthetic shivering in patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate under subarachnoid blockade
Anurag Tewari, Ira Dhawan, Vidhi Mahendru, Sunil Katyal, Avtar Singh, Shuchita Garg
January-March 2014, 8(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125898  PMID:24665233
Context: Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. Aim: We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery under subarachnoid blockade (SAB). Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II (n = 40 each) received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature (tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead), hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago (SPSS statistics (version 16.0)), software was used for analysis. Results: Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol (7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01). The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB.
  3,081 293 -
Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children
Sonal S Khatavkar, Rochana G Bakhshi
January-March 2014, 8(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125904  PMID:24665234
Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 and 2 were selected. Group A- midazolam (0.2 mg/kg), Group B- midazolam (0.15 mg/kg + ketamine 1 mg/kg). Both groups received drug intranasally 30 min before surgery in recovery room with monitored anesthesia care. Onset of sedation, sedation score, emotional reaction, intravenous cannula acceptance, and mask acceptance were studied. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t test and chi square test. Results: Sedation score, anxiolysis, attitude, reaction to intravenous cannulation, face mask acceptance, and emotional reaction were significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Intra operatively, in both groups, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate had no significant difference; also, post operatively, no significant difference was observed in above parameters, post operative analgesia was significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Conclusions: Intra nasal premedication allows rapid and predictable sedation in children. Midazolam as well as combination of Midazolam with ketamine gives good level of sedation and comfort. But quality of sedation, analgesia, and comfort is significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. No significant side effects were observed in both groups.
  2,602 323 1
Application of the upper lip catch test for airway evaluation in edentulous patients: An observational study
Zahid Hussain Khan, Shahriar Arbabi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ramooz Hussain Khan
January-March 2014, 8(1):73-77
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125942  PMID:24665244
Background: Application of upper lip catch test (ULCT) for airway evaluation in edentulous patients. Methods: This research is an evaluation of a clinical diagnostic test in edentulous patients prior to operation. Five hundred eighty eight edentulous patients in a referral university hospital, between March 2008 and June 2011 scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Those unable to open the mouth and those with pharyngo-laryngeal pathology were excluded. ULCT was assessed and compared with Cormack-Lehane grading as a gold standard for airway evaluation. Results: A high negative predictive value of 99.4% was a notable finding for the ULCT. The results also showed a high specificity (89.4%), high sensitivity (75.0%) and a high accuracy (89.3%) in a comparatively higher range for the ULCT. Conclusion: The ULCT proved to be a useful predictor for airway assessment in edentulous patients in this setting. Further studies are needed to reconfirm its validity in other ethnic groups.
  2,632 224 -
Effect of auditory stimulation on traumatic coma duration in intensive care unit of Medical Sciences University of Mazandarn, Iran
Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Fereshteh Araghiyansc, Hadayat Jafari, Ali Morad Heidari Gorgi, Jamshid Yazdani
January-March 2014, 8(1):69-72
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125940  PMID:24665243
Background: Sensory deprivation is one of the common complications of coma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a familiar voice to consciousness level in coma patients. Methods: A total of 13 patients with traumatic coma (8 ≥ Glasgow's coma scale [GCS]) admitted in ICU ward were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group was treated twice a daily each time 15 min with a familiar recorded MP3 sound for 2 weeks. The control group received only natural voices of environment. GCS applied to evaluate patients' level of consciousness. Finding: Findings showed that duration to reach GCS = 15 was significantly shorter in the experimental group (χ 2 = 12/96, P < 0/001). Conclusion: These findings imply that providing familiar auditory stimulation programs for coma patients in the ICU could be effective.
  2,356 215 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
A simple technique to avoid difficulty in guide wire insertion during pediatric central venous cannulation
Surya Kumar Dube, Arvind Chaturvedi
January-March 2014, 8(1):141-142
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125980  PMID:24665260
  2,368 114 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of spinal ropivacaine versus ropivacaine with fentanyl in transurethral resection operations
A Chaudhary, J Bogra, PK Singh, S Saxena, G Chandra, R Verma
January-March 2014, 8(1):88-91
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125951  PMID:24665247
Background: The low-dose ropivacaine provides differential spinal block to reduce adverse hemodynamic effects in elderly patients. Addition of intrathecal fentanyl with ropivacaine may enhance analgesia and early postoperative mobility. The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal ropivacaine alone and in combination with fentanyl in transurethral resection operation. Methods: Sixty male patients aged >50 years of ASA I-III scheduled for elective transurethral resection were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study and they were divided in two groups of 30 each. Group A (n = 30) received intrathecal injection of ropivacaine 2 ml (0.75%) and Group B (n = 30) ropivacaine 1.8 ml (0.75%) with fentanyl 10 μg. The characteristics of onset and regression of sensory and motor blockade, hemodynamic stability, and side effects were observed. Student's t test (for parametric data) and Mann-Whitney U test (for non-parametric data) were used for statistical analyses. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups for patient demographic data, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, side effects, and satisfaction to patients and surgeon. The highest level of sensory block was at T10 in group A and T9 in group B (P = 0.001). Duration of motor block was longer in group B being 210.51 ± 61.25 min than in group A being 286.25 ± 55.65 min (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of fentanyl to ropivacaine may offer the advantage of shorter duration of complete motor block, hemodynamic stability, and without any increase in the frequency of major side effects.
  2,193 228 2
Effect of continuous magnesium sulfate infusion on spinal block characteristics: A prospective study
Akansha Agrawal, Sanjay Agrawal, Agrawal S Payal
January-March 2014, 8(1):78-82
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125945  PMID:24665245
Background: Spinal anesthesia is an established mode of anesthesia for lower limb orthopedic surgeries. The limitations of the technique are short duration of action and limited post-operative analgesia. Concomitant use of intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate may have an effect on the block characteristics and duration of action of intrathecal bupivacaine. Methods: A total of 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients, either sex, 20-60 years of age scheduled for elective orthopedic fixation of fracture of long bones of lower limbs under spinal anesthesia were included. Spinal anesthesia administered with 2.5 ml heavy bupivacaine mixed with 10 mcg fentanyl. The groups were then divided to receive an infusion of injection magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg/h over 15 min followed by 15 mg/kg/h until the end of the surgery (Group M) and 15 ml of Normal Saline over 15 min followed by 100 ml/h until the end of surgery (Group S). Onset, duration of sensory and motor block and amount of post-operative analgesic were noted. Results: A total of 6 patients (Group M) and seven patients (Group S) had inadequate block and excluded from the study. Mean block height was T6. Time required to achieve block height was 8.82 min versus 7.42 min in Groups M and S respectively (P = 0.04). Mean duration of motor block was longer in group M (160.63 ± 17.76 min) compared with Group S (130.12 ± 20.70 min) (P = 0.000). Time for regression of sensory block to T12/L1was 206.88 ± 20.96 min (Group M) and 163.88 ± 15.46 min (Group S) (P = 0.000). Hemodynamic parameters were similar and statistically not significant. Need for first analgesic requirement was after 262.88 ± 21.11 min in group M and 193.25 ± 17.74 min in the group S (P = 0.000). Mean dosage of tramadol needed in first 24 h was less in group M (190 ± 30.38 mg vs. 265 ± 48.30 mg, P = 0.000). Conclusion: Use of intravenous magnesium with spinal anesthesia reduces post-operative pain and analgesic consumption.
  2,007 391 -
A comparison between over-the-head and lateral cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a single rescuer by bag-valve mask
Ebrahim Nasiri, Reza Nasiri
January-March 2014, 8(1):30-37
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125923  PMID:24665237
Context: mask fixation in the lateral position is difficult during CPR. Aim: the aim of this study is to compare the lateral CPR for the use of bag-valve mask by single paramedic rescuer as well as over-the-head CPR on the chest compression and ventilation on the manikin. Settings and Design: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The design of this study was a randomized cross-over trial. Methods: participants learned a standardized theoretical introduction CPR according to the 2010 guidelines. The total number of chest compressions per two minutes was measured. Total number of correct and wrong ventilation per two minutes was evaluated. Statistical Analysis: we used Wilcoxon signed-rank test to analyze the non-normally distributed data in dependence groups A. P-value of more than 0.05 was considered to show statistical significance. Results: there were 100 participants (45 women and 55 men) who participated in the study from September to March, 2011. The compression and ventilation rate in lateral CPR was lower than OTH CPR. Around 51% of participants had correct chest compression rate more than 90 beats per minute in lateral CPR and 65% of them had equal or more than ten correct ventilations per minute. Conclusions: in conclusion, this study confirmed that in a simulated CPR model over-the-head position CPR led to a better BLS than the lateral position CPR by a single paramedic student with a BVM device. We also concluded that by this new BVM fixation method on the face of the patients in the lateral position CPR can be a good alternative over-the-head mask fixation by a single trained rescuer.
  2,269 127 -
Intrathecal fentanyl as an adjuvant to 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine for infraumbilical surgery under subarachnoid block: A prospective study
Kumkum Gupta, Surjeet Singh, Deepak Sharma, Prashant K Gupta, Atul Krishan, MN Pandey
January-March 2014, 8(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125939  PMID:24665242
Background: Subarachnoid blockade can be used in all surgical procedures carried out on the infraumbilical region. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intrathecal fentanyl as an adjuvant to 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine on onset, duration, intensity, and recovery time of sensory and motor blockade of subarachnoid block for infra umbilical surgery. Methods: One hundred sixty adult consented patients of either gender with American Society of Anesthesiologist ASA I and II scheduled for infraumbilical surgery were randomized into two groups of 80 patients each to receive either intrathecal study solution of 4 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine with 0.4 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride (Group I-Ropivacaine Control Group RC) or fentanyl (20 μg) (Group II-Ropivacaine with Fentanyl RF). The end points were hemodynamic variability, onset of analgesia at T 10, maximum sensory analgesic level, time to complete motor blockade, duration of sensory and motor blockade and adequacy of surgical anesthesia. The post-spinal nausea and vomiting, shivering, pruritus, respiratory depression or any other side-effects were also assessed. At the end of study, data were systematically complied and analyzed for statistically significance. Result: The intrathecal fentanyl has accelerated the onset time to achieve sensory blockade to T10 dermatome and motor blockade. Small dose of intrathecal fentanyl with ropivacaine has prolonged the duration of analgesia in the early post-operative period when compared with intrathecal ropivacaine alone. The intraoperative hemodynamic variability showed no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Intrathecal fentanyl as an adjuvant to 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine demonstrated better clinical profile as compared to ropivacaine alone.
  2,113 250 1
A comparison of the analgesic efficacy of transforaminal methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine in lumbo-sacral radiculopathy
Nazia Tauheed, Hammad Usmani, Anwar Hasan Siddiqui
January-March 2014, 8(1):51-58
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125937  PMID:24665240
Background: Although transforaminal epidural steroid injections under fluoroscopic guidance have become a common mode of treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc, the efficacy of steroid with low doses of clonidine has not been compared yet. Objectives: Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine for transforaminal injection in lumbosacral radiculopathy. Study Design: A randomized, double-blind trial. Setting: This study was performed at the Pain Clinic under the Department of Anaesthesiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Methods: One hundred and eighty ASA grade I and II patients aged between 18 and 55 years were allocated into groups I, II and III to receive methylprednisolone 60 mg alone or methylprednisolone 60 mg with or without low doses of clonidine (0.5 mcg/kg or 1 mcg/kg) as transforaminal epidural injection. Pain relief and patient's satisfaction were evaluated with the global pain scale. Follow-up visits were advised at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 months after injection. Associated complications were recorded. Results: Maximum pain relief was observed at 2 weeks after injection in all the three groups, with no difference in complication rate among the three groups. The most common complication observed was paresthesia in the nerve distribution. Greater than 60% improvement in pain scores was seen in 40% of the patients in group I, 50% of the patients in group II and 75% of the patients in group III. Limitations: This study is limited by the lack of a placebo group. Conclusion: Adding 1 mcg/kg clonidine to 60 mg methylprednisolone in transforaminal epidural injections provided better pain relief than 60 mg methylprednisolone with 0.5 mcg/kg clonidine or 60 mg methylprednisolone alone in patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy, with practically no significant side-effects.
  2,116 147 1
PONV in Ambulatory surgery: A comparison between Ramosetron and Ondansetron: a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled study
Debasis Banerjee, Anjan Das, Saikat Majumdar, Rahul Deb Mandal, Soumyadip Dutta, Anindya Mukherjee, Aparna Chakraborty, Sandip Chattopadhyay
January-March 2014, 8(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125917  PMID:24665236
Background: postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens. Aims: the study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Setting and Design: it was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. Methods: 124 adult patients of either sex, aged 25-55, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A [(n=62) receiving (IV) Ondansetron (4 mg)] and Group B [(n=62) receiving IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg)] prior to the induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind manner. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h, 6 , 12, and 18 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P <0.05) was found showing that Ramosetron was superior to Ondansetron as antiemetic both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: it was evident that preoperative prophylactic administration of single dose IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg) has better efficacy than single dose IV Ondansetron (4 mg) in reducing the episodes of PONV over 18 h postoperatively in patients undergoing day-care surgery under general anesthesia.
  2,034 180 1
CASE REPORTS
Anesthetic management of a 2-day-old with complete congenital heart block
Puneet Khanna, Shubhangi Arora, Ajisha Aravindan, Ganga Prasad
January-March 2014, 8(1):134-137
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125977  PMID:24665257
Maternal connective tissue disorders such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (most common), Sjogren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disorders may lead to the rare condition of complete congenital heart block in the neonate. Rare fetal syndromes such as myocarditis, 18p syndrome, mucopolysaccharidoses and mitochondrial diseases are other causes. The mortality rate of this condition is inversely propotional to the age of presentation being 6 % in the neonatal age group. As the cardiac output in the neonate is heart rate dependent, it is crucial to maintain the heart rate in these patients. Pharamacological interventions with dopamine, isoprenaline, epinephrine and atropine are known for their variable response. Although permanent pacing is the most reliable mode of management, the access to it is often not readily available, especially in the developing countries. In such cases temporary pacing methods become lifesaving. Of all the modalities of temporary pacing (transcutaneous, transesophageal and transvenous) transcutaneous pacing is the most readily available and immediate mode. In this case report we present a two day old neonate with isolated complete congenital heart block and a resting heart rate of 50-55/min in immediate need of palliative surgery for trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF). With pharmacological intervention the heart rate could only be raised to 75-80/min. The surgery was successfully carried out using transcutaneous pacing to maintain a heart rate of 100/min.
  2,031 145 -
EDITORIALS
Endocrine anesthesia: A rapidly evolving anesthesia specialty
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sanjay Kalra
January-March 2014, 8(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125890  PMID:24665230
  1,761 277 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ring block with levobupivacaine 0.25% and paracetamol vs. paracetamol alone in children submitted to three different surgical techniques of circumcision: A prospective randomized study
Nick Zavras, Stella Tsamoudaki, Efstratios Christianakis, Demetrios Schizas, Emmanuel Pikoulis, Helen Kyritsi, George Chrousos
January-March 2014, 8(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125936  PMID:24665239
Background: circumcision in children is a painful procedure. We aim compare the intraoperative and postoperative efficacy of three different surgical procedures of the ring block using levobupivacaine 0.25% combined with rectal paracetamol as opposed to rectal paracetamol alone. Methods: the study included 106 boys scheduled to undergo circumcision. The patients were randomly assigned within two groups to receive either ring block with levobupivacaine 0.25% and rectal paracetamol 30 mg/kg, or rectal paracetamol 30 mg/kg alone. The following surgical procedures were performed: sutureless proctoplasty, preputial plasty, and conventional circumcision. The efficacy of intraoperative analgesia was estimated on the basis of increases in heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Postoperatively, children were assessed for pain, pain-free (PF) period, and the total doses of analgesics administered during hospitalization, on the day after discharge, and on the first and second postoperative days. Results: all children remained stable during anesthesia. Postoperatively, the mean pain score did not show statistical differences between the groups. Children who received combined analgesia had a longer PF period (P < 0.001). However, the total doses of paracetamol administered during the observational period showed no differences. Children undergoing sutureless prepuceplasty received lower doses of paracetamol postoperatively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: subcutaneous ring block either with levobupivacaine 0.25% plus rectal paracetamol or rectal paracetamol alone provides adequate intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in circumcised children. However, combined analgesia allows a longer PF period. The need for less analgesic administration in children undergoing sutureless prepuceplasty could mean that the circumcision techniques might be a mitigating factor in terms of pain.
  1,812 165 -
A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia
Sriramamurthy Kaja, Ravindra S Giri, Deepak V Tugave, Mukarram Iqbal
January-March 2014, 8(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125938  PMID:24665241
Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and distressing complications after anesthesia and surgery. It may lead to serious post-operative complications. Ramosetron is a newer 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and has more potent and longer duration of antiemetic effects compared to first generation 5HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting with that of Ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anesthesia. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 60 patients, 18-60 years of both genders falling under ASA I-II category scheduled for abdominal surgery were included. Group I received I.V ramosetron 0.3 mg while group II received I.V Ondansetron 4 mg at the time of extubation. The standard general anesthetic technique was used throughout. Postoperatively the incidences of nausea, vomiting, and safety assessments were performed at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h during the first 24 h after surgery. Results: There were no differences between groups with respect to patient demographics. The percentage of patients who had complete response (no PONV, and no need for another rescue antiemetic) from 0 to 24 h after anesthesia was 56% with ramosetron and 33% with ondansetron. The corresponding rates at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after anesthesia were 76% and 63%, 76% and 50%, 100 and 83%, 100 and 93%, respectively. Safety profiles of the two drugs were comparable, as no clinically serious adverse effects caused by study drugs were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Our study concludes that prophylactic therapy with ramosetron is highly efficacious than ondansetron in preventing PONV in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia.
  1,707 157 -
CASE REPORTS
Delayed Horner's syndrome following ultrasound- guided interscalene brachial plexus block
Traiq Alzahrani, Mouhannad Alnajjar, Abdulrahman D Algarni, Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb
January-March 2014, 8(1):121-123
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125972  PMID:24665252
We describe a case of Horner's syndrome that occurred shortly after post-operative bolus administration of interscalene brachial plexus analgesia.
  1,572 109 2
EDITORIAL
A deeper understanding of anesthesiology practice: the biopsychosocial perspective
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sanjay Kalra
January-March 2014, 8(1):4-5
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125893  PMID:24665231
  1,557 123 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Anatomical variations of interscalene brachial plexus block: Do they really matter?
Naveen Yadav, Nisha Saini, Arshad Ayub
January-March 2014, 8(1):142-143
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125981  PMID:24665261
  1,536 115 -
Hyperhomocysteinemia: Anesthetic concerns
Shiba Aggarwal, Shalini Verma, Baljit Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
January-March 2014, 8(1):143-144
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125982  PMID:24665262
  1,520 80 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of granisetron and nitroglycerine for attenuating rocuronium pain: A double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled trial
Rohit Goyal, Parul Jindal, Gurjeet Khurana
January-March 2014, 8(1):83-87
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125948  PMID:24665246
Background: The incidence of pain reported in literature after IV administration of rocuronium is 50-80%. The aim of our study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron and nitroglycerine would reduce rocuronium-induced pain. Methods: One hundred fifty patients of either sex, aged 18-65 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA) I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Group G: received 2 granisetron (1mg/ml) diluted with 3 ml of 0.9% normal saline) while the Group C: received 5 ml of 0.9% normal saline. Group N: received 200΅g of nitroglycerine diluted to a total of 5 ml(with 0.9% normal saline). It was accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 20 seconds. Then 0.06mg/kg of rocuronium was injected through same cannula over 10-15 sec.Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of rocuronium using visual analogue scale (0-10) with 0-no pain,1-3 mild pain, 4-6 moderate and >=7 severe pain. At the same time discomfort in the form of patient's movement, such as no movement (grade 0), movement only wrist (grade 1), movement to the upper arm and shoulder of injected arm (grade 2) or generalized movements (grade3) was observed. Statistical analysis using independent t test, Mann-Whitney test and reverse ANOVA was done. Results: 1. At 0 seconds, in group G number of patients who experienced withdrawl score of 0-1 were 92%,group N were 82% while only 26% of patients in group C had favourable withdrawl score.74% of patients in group C had score of 2-3 at same time. 2. At 0 sec, in group G number of patients who experienced VAS score of 0-3 were 96%, group N 72%. At same time Group C 48 % of patients had VAS score of 2-3. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron or nitroglycerine both are highly effective in attenuation of rocuronium induced pain.
  1,447 105 -
Albumin and fibrinogen levels' relation with orthopedics traumatic patients' outcome after massive transfusion
Mohammadreza Bazavar, Ali Tabrizi, Naghi Abedini, Asghar Elmi
January-March 2014, 8(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125915  PMID:24665235
Background: Severe bleeding is common during limb trauma. It can lead to hemorrhagic shock required to massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is the major complication of massive transfusion-induced increased mortality rate. Aim of this study was evaluation of fibrinogen and albumin levels association with orthopedics traumatic patients' outcome who received massive transfusion. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 23 patients with severe limb injury admitted to orthopedic emergency department were studied. All the patients received massive transfusion, that is, >10 unit blood. Albumin and fibrinogen levels are measured at admission and 24 h later, and compared according to final outcome. Results: Twenty-three traumatic patients with severe limb injuries were studied, out of which ten (43.2%) died and 13 (56.8%) were alive. There was significant difference between patients outcome in fibrinogen level after 24 h, but no difference was observed in albumin levels. Based on regression model, fibrinogen after 24 h had a significant role in determining the final outcome in traumatic patients who received massive transfusion (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.92, P = 0.02). Conclusions: According to our results, fibrinogen level is the most important factor in determination of orthopedics traumatic patients when received massive transfusion. However, serum albumin does not play any role in patients' outcome.
  1,374 122 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Anesthetic management for elective cesarean section in a case of acromegaly with diabetes mellitus
Chaula M Doshi, Shubha N Mohite, Sonal S Khatavkar, Sumit Vaghani
January-March 2014, 8(1):139-140
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125979  PMID:24665259
  1,270 97 -
Ventricular arrhythmia during Valsalva maneuver applied to facilitate resection of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis cyst
Surya Kumar Dube, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Pallav Kumar, Shailendra Kumar, Keshav Goyal
January-March 2014, 8(1):138-139
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.125978  PMID:24665258
  1,072 71 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

January-March 2014, 8(1):133-133
  667 49 -
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