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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of role of perioperative melatonin in prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium after hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia in the elderly
Sherif S Sultan
September-December 2010, 4(3):169-173
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.71132  PMID:21189854
Context: Little is known about the relationship between sedative drugs used preoperatively and postoperative delirium. Melatonin is a drug used to sedate patients preoperatively and is hypothesized by recent works to have a curative effect on postoperative delirium. Aims: The incidence of postoperative delirium will be tested if affected by three different sedative drugs including melatonin. Settings and Design: Controlled randomized double-blind study. Patients and Methods: Three-hundred patients aged>65 years scheduled for hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia were randomly distributed to one of the four groups. Group 1 (control) received nothing for sedation. Group 2 (melatonin) received 5 mg melatonin. Group 3 (midazolam) received 7.5 mg midazolam. Group 4 (clonidine) received 100 μg clonidine. These medications were given orally at sleep time at night of operation and another dose 90 min before operative time. Patients who developed postoperative delirium received 5 mg of melatonin 9 pm for three successive days in a trial to treat delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS Software (version 13). Results: Total of 222 patients completed the study. Percentage of postoperative delirium in the control group was 32.65% (16/49 patients). The melatonin group showed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of postoperative delirium to 9.43% (5/53 patients). Melatonin was successful in treating 58.06% of patients suffered postoperative delirium (36/62 patients) with no difference between different groups. Conclusions: Postoperative delirium is affected with the drug used for preoperative sedation. Melatonin was successful in decreasing postoperative delirium when used preoperatively and in treating more than half of patients developed postoperative delirium when used for three postoperative nights.
  35 16,154 1,449
Palonosetron: A novel approach to control postoperative nausea and vomiting in day care surgery
Sukhminderjit Singh Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Jasbir Kaur, Veenita Sharma, Amarjit Singh, Anita Singh, SPS Goraya, SS Parmar, Kamaljit Singh
January-March 2011, 5(1):19-24
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.76484  PMID:21655011
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complications which hamper the successful implementation of day care surgical procedure in spite of the availability of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens for its prevention. The aim was to compare the prophylactic effects of intravenously (IV) administered ondansetron and palonosetron on PONV prevention in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: A prospective double-blind study comprised of 60 ASAI/II female patients between the age group of 25 and 40 years was carried out in the Departments of Anesthesiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology of our institute. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each in a double-blind manner. Group I received 8 mg of inj. ondansetron IV while group II received inj. palonosetron 0.075 mg IV 5 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. The need for rescue antiemetics, episodes of PONV and other side effects were observed for 6 hours in the postanesthesia care unit and thereafter complaints were received on phone after the discharge. At the end of study, results were compiled and statistical data was subjected to statistical analysis using Student two-tailed 't' and c2 test and value of P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The demographical profile of the patients was comparable. Twenty and 13.33% of the patients in group I had nausea and vomiting episodes postoperatively as compared to 6.67% and 3.33%, respectively, in group II which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Twenty percent of the patients in group I experienced significant post-op headache as compared to 6.67% in group II. The mean rescue dose of antiemetic was significantly higher (10.6 mg) in the group I as compared to group II (6.4 mg) (P=0.036). The rest of parameters were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions: Palonosetron is a comparatively better drug to prevent the PONV in patients undergoing day care surgical procedures as compared to ondansetron as it has got a prolonged duration of action and favorable side-effects profile.
  24 7,440 881
A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy
Anju Ghai, Monika Gupta, Sarla Hooda, Dinesh Singla, Raman Wadhera
July-September 2011, 5(3):252-257
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84097  PMID:21957402
Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 1-2 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 1-2 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo.
  21 7,982 701
Preanesthetic medication in children: A comparison of intranasal dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam
Ashraf M Ghali, Abdul Kader Mahfouz, Maher Al-Bahrani
October-December 2011, 5(4):387-391
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.87268  
Background: Relieving preoperative anxiety is an important concern for the pediatric anesthesiologist. Midazolam has become the most frequently used premedication in children. However, new drugs such as the α2 -agonists have emerged as alternatives for premedication in pediatric anesthesia. Methods: One hundred and twenty children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized study. The children were divided into two equal groups to receive either intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (group D), or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (group M) at approximately 60 and 30 mins, respectively, before induction of anesthesia. Preoperative sedative effects, anxiety level changes, and the ease of child-parent separation were assessed. Also, the recovery profile and postoperative analgesic properties were assessed. Results: Children premedicated with intranasal dexmedetomidine achieved significantly lower sedation levels (P=0.042), lower anxiety levels (P=0.036), and easier child-parent separation (P=0.029) than children who received oral midazolam at the time of transferring the patients to the operating room. Postoperatively, the time to achieve an Aldrete score of 10 was similar in both the groups (P=0.067). Also, the number of children who required fentanyl as rescue analgesia medication was significantly less (P=0.027) in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine appears to be a better choice for preanesthetic medication than oral midazolam in our study. Dexmedetomidine was associated with lower sedation levels, lower anxiety levels, and easier child-parent separation at the time of transferring patients to the operating room than children who received oral midazolam. Moreover, intranasal dexmedetomidine has better analgesic property than oral midazolam with discharge time from postanesthetic care unit similar to oral midazolam.
  17 11,253 783
Ultrasound-guided single injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block using bupivacaine alone or combined with dexmedetomidine for pain control in upper limb surgery: A prospective randomized controlled trial
Amany S Ammar, Khaled M Mahmoud
April-June 2012, 6(2):109-114
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.97021  PMID:22754434
Background: Dexmedetomidine, is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist that is used as an adjuvant mixed with local anesthetics during regional anesthesia. This study was designed to test the efficacy of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine during placement of infraclavicular brachial plexus blockade (ICB). Methods: Sixty adult patients were divided into 2 equal groups of 30 subjects each. Patients in Group I received an ICB using 30 mL of 0.33% bupivacaine and Group II patients received 30 mL of 0.33% bupivacaine mixed with 0.75 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine. The following brachial plexus nerve block parameters were assessed: block success rate, sensory onset time and duration, motor block onset time and duration, analgesic pain scores using the verbal rating scale (VRS) for pain, duration of analgesia, and amount of supplemental intravenous (IV) morphine required. Results: There was a statistically significant shorter time to onset of sensory blockade (13.2 vs 19.4 min, P=0.003), longer duration of sensory block (179.4 vs 122.7 min, P=0.002), shorter onset time to achieve motor block (15.3 vs 22.2 min, P=0.003), longer duration of motor block (155.5 vs 105.7 min, P=0.002), lower VRS pain scores, prolonged analgesia (403 vs 233 min, P=0.002), and lower morphine rescue requirements for 48 h after surgery (4.9 (0-8.0) vs 13.6 mg (4.0-16.0) mg, P=0.005). All patients recovered without evidence of sensory or motor deficit. Conclusion: Adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine during the placement of an ICB provides: (1) enhancement of onset of sensory and motor blockade, (2) prolonged duration of analgesia, (3) increases duration of sensory and motor block, (4) yields lower VRS pain scores, and (5) reduces supplemental opioid requirements.
  17 7,124 598
Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl for epidural analgesia in lower limb orthopedic surgeries
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Vikramjit Arora, Jasbir Kaur, Amarjit Singh, SS Parmar
October-December 2011, 5(4):365-370
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.87264  
Background and Aims: Opioids as epidural adjunct to local anesthetics (LA) have been in use since long and α-2 agonists are being increasingly used for similar purpose. The present study aims at comparing the hemodynamic, sedative, and analgesia potentiating effects of epidurally administered fentanyl and dexmedetomidine when combined with ropivacaine. Methods: A total of one hundred patients of both gender aged 21-56 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II who underwent lower limb orthopedic surgery were enrolled into the present study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Ropivacaine + Dexmedetomidine (RD) and Ropivacaine + Fentanyl (RF), comprising 50 patie nts each. Inj. Ropivacaine, 15 ml of 0.75%, was administered epidurally in both the groups with addition of 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine in RD group and 1 μg/kg of fentanyl in RF group. Besides cardio-respiratory parameters and sedation scores, various block characteristics were also observed which included time to onset of analgesia at T10, maximum sensory analgesic level, time to complete motor blockade, time to two segmental dermatomal regressions, and time to first rescue analgesic. At the end of study, data was compiled systematically and analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Value of P<0.05 is considered significant and P<0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in both the groups. Onset of sensory analgesia at T10 (7.12±2.44 vs 9.14±2.94) and establishment of complete motor blockade (18.16±4.52 vs 22.98±4.78) was significantly earlier in the RD group. Postoperative analgesia was prolonged significantly in the RD group (366.62±24.42) and consequently low dose consumption of local anaesthetic LA (76.82±14.28 vs 104.35±18.96) during epidural top-ups postoperatively. Sedation scores were much better in the RD group and highly significant on statistical comparison (P<0.001). Incidence of nausea and vomiting was significantly high in the RF group (26% and 12%), while incidence of dry mouth was significantly higher in the RD group (14%) (P<0.05). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine seems to be a better alternative to fentanyl as an epidural adjuvant as it provides comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset, and establishment of sensory anesthesia, prolonged post-op analgesia, lower consumption of post-op LA for epidural analgesia, and much better sedation levels.
  16 8,821 1,105
REVIEW ARTICLES
Procedural sedation: A review of sedative agents, monitoring, and management of complications
Joseph D Tobias, Marc Leder
October-December 2011, 5(4):395-410
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.87270  
Given the continued increase in the complexity of invasive and noninvasive procedures, healthcare practitioners are faced with a larger number of patients requiring procedural sedation. Effective sedation and analgesia during procedures not only provides relief of suffering, but also frequently facilitates the successful and timely completion of the procedure. However, any of the agents used for sedation and/or analgesia may result in adverse effects. These adverse effects most often affect upper airway patency, ventilatory function or the cardiovascular system. This manuscript reviews the pharmacology of the most commonly used agents for sedation and outlines their primary effects on respiratory and cardiovascular function. Suggested guidelines for the avoidance of adverse effects through appropriate pre-sedation evaluation, early identification of changes in respiratory and cardiovascular function, and their treatment are outlined.
  16 7,576 568
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA TM ) with the laryngeal mask airway Proseal TM for lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries in paralyzed, anesthetized patients
Ashraf Abualhassan Abdellatif, Monaz Abdulrahman Ali
July-September 2011, 5(3):270-276
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84100  PMID:21957405
Context: Supraglottic airway devices have been used as an alternative to tracheal intubation during laparoscopic surgery. Aims: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) for positive pressure ventilation and postoperative complications with the Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal (PLMA) for patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopies under general anesthesia with controlled ventilation. Settings and Design: Prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial performed on patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries. Methods: A total of 120 patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries were randomly allocated into two equal groups; PLMA and SLIPA groups. Number of intubation attempts, insertion time, ease of insertion, and fiberoptic bronchoscopic view were recorded. Lung mechanics data were collected 5 minutes after securing the airway, then after abdominal insufflation. Blood traces and regurgitation were checked for; postoperative sore throat and other complications were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were calculated and statistical analyses were performed for each group. Independent sample t-test was used to compare continuous variables exhibiting normal distribution, and Chi-squared test for noncontinuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Insertion time, first insertion success rate, and ease of insertion were comparable in both groups. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic view was significantly better and epiglottic downfolding was significantly lower in SLIPA group. Sealing pressure and lung mechanics were similar. Gastric distension was not observed in both groups. Postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in PACU in PLMA group. Blood traces on the device were significantly more in SLIPA group. Conclusions: SLIPA can be used as a useful alternative to PLMA in patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgery with muscle relaxant and controlled ventilation.
  12 7,685 187
Comparison of three supraglottic devices in anesthetised paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery
Bikramjit Das, Subhro Mitra, Shahin N Jamil, Rohit K Varshney
July-September 2012, 6(3):224-228
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.101212  PMID:23162394
Context: The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. Aims: This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. Settings and design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Ninety ASA grade I-II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications. Results: There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH 2 O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH 2 O) and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH 2 O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups. Conclusions: Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.
  12 3,857 364
Efficacy of tranexamic acid on blood loss during bimaxilary osteotomy: A randomized double blind clinical trial
Abbas Karimi, Sussan Soltani Mohammadi, Mahboobeh Hasheminasab
January-March 2012, 6(1):41-45
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.93057  
Background: Tranexamic acid has been used to reduce bleeding and the subsequent need for blood transfusion in many surgeries. Because orthognathic surgery can be associated with significant bleeding, this study evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid on blood loss during bimaxillary osteotomy. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients, scheduled for elective bimaxillary osteotomy, were included in the study and 16 were randomly assigned to each group. They received tranexamic acid (20 mg/kg) or equal volume of placebo (normal saline) intravenously just before induction of anesthesia. Intraoperative blood loss, pre and post operative hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) concentration, duration of surgery, hospital stay time, and rate of blood transfusion were recorded for each patient. Results: Intraoperative blood loss in the tranexamic group and control group were 585.9 and 790 mL respectively (P=0.008). Postoperative Hb concentration at the 6 th hour was greater in the tranexamic group (P=0.008). There was no significant difference in the Hct concentration between the study groups. There was no significant difference in blood transfusion rate, hospital stay time and duration of surgery between the study groups. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of tranexamic acid reduces the amount of blood loss during bimaxillary osteotomy.
  11 4,046 273
Outpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: Safety and efficacy of anesthetic management with a natural airway in 653 consecutive procedures
Basavana G Goudra, Preet Mohinder Singh, Ashish C Sinha
July-September 2013, 7(3):259-265
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.115334  PMID:24015127
Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic procedure performed in high risk patients in prone/semi-prone position. Propofol based deep sedation has emerged as the method of choice however, the ability to predict possible complications is yet un-explored. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate known high risk-factors for general anesthesia (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, body mass index (BMI), and Mallampati class) for their ability to affect outcomes in ERCP patients. Study Design: Retrospective data of 653 patients who underwent ERCP during a period of 26 months at university hospital of Pennsylvania was reviewed. Patient-specific and procedure specific data was extracted. Desaturation was defined by fall of pulse oximeter saturation below 95% and its relation to patient specific high risk-factors was analyzed. Results: Only 45 patients had transient de-saturation below 95% without any residual sequlae. No statistically significant relation between desaturation episodes and patients higher ASA status or BMI or modified Mallampati (MMP) class was found. Despite 60% patients being ASA III/IV none required emergency intubation or procedural interruption. Optimal oxygenation and airway patency was maintained with high degree of success using simple airway maneuvers or conduit devices (nasal/oral trumpet) with oxygen supplementation in all patients. Conclusions: Unlike general anesthesia, pre-operative patient ASA status, higher MMP or increasing BMI does not bear relation with likelihood of patients desaturating during ERCP. In presence of vigilant apnea monitoring and careful dose titration of maintenance anesthetics with airway conduits, general anesthesia, emergency intubations, and procedure interruptions can be avoided.
  11 4,913 283
Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol
Monaz Abdulrahman Ali, Ashraf Abualhasan Abdellatif
July-September 2013, 7(3):296-300
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.115363  PMID:24015133
Background: Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children. Methods: One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C) received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P) received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D) received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg -1 . The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15) and 30 min (T30). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed. Results: The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg 1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia.
  11 4,999 350
Comparative evaluation of two doses of tranexamic acid used prophylactically in anemic parturients for lower segment cesarean section: A double-blind randomized case control prospective trial
Upasana Goswami, Sushmita Sarangi, Sunali Gupta, Savita Babbar
October-December 2013, 7(4):427-431
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.121077  PMID:24348295
Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and anemia thereafter can be a life threatening condition in parturients undergoing lower segment cesarean section (LSCS), especially when anemia is present. Aim: The objective of this study was to assess two doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intra operative blood loss and incidence of PPH, in terms of both efficacy and safety profiles, when used prophylactically. Methods: A monocenter prospective case control double blind randomized study was carried out on a consecutive series of 90 anemic patients undergoing LSCS, with hemoglobin between 7-10 g percent. Three random groups were formed. Group T1 (n=30) received 10mg/kg TXA in 20 ml of 5% dextrose intravenously, while T2 group (n=30) received 15mg/kg. Group C (n=30) received a placebo. Drug was administered prophylactically 20 min before skin incision. Blood loss was measured from placental delivery up to 24 hours by method of weight and volume. Staistical Analysis: To compare quantitative data between two groups, t-test, and for more than two groups ANOVA was used. To compare the mean for non- parametric data between two groups Mann - Whitney test was used, while in case of more than two groups Kruskal - Wallis test was employed. Probability (p) value was considered significant when it was 0.05 or less. Results: TXA significantly reduced blood loss in both the study groups. Mean total blood loss was 527.17±88.666 ml, 376.83±31.961ml and 261.17±56.777 ml in group C, T1, and T2 respectively. While reduction of blood loss in T1 group compared to control group was 146.34±56.32ml, it was 262±31.51ml in T2 group. Difference between T1 and T2 was 115.66±24.81ml, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Postoperative blood loss was insignificant in all three groups. Pre- and post-operative hemoglobin levels differed significantly when compared to control group. Blood transfusion was needed in two patients in the control group, whereas no patient in groups T1 and T2 needed transfusion (P=0.02). No significant adverse effect was seen in all the three groups. Conclusion: Hence, TXA was found to be effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion in anemic parturients undergoing LSCS. 15mg/kg dose of TXA was more efficacious than the 10mg/kg dose and without any undue increase in adverse events. Postpartum anemia is a public health problem worldwide and TXA could prove to be a very useful drug to prevent blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing LSCS, especially in the anemic subgroup.
  11 3,277 353
CASE REPORTS
Inadvertent intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid
Olfa Kaabachi, Mongi Eddhif, Karim Rais, Mohamed Ali Zaabar
January-March 2011, 5(1):90-92
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.76504  PMID:21655027
Some factors have been identified as contributing to medical errors such as labels, appearance, and location of ampules. In this case report, inadvertent intrathecal injection of 80 mg tranexamic acid was followed by severe pain in the back and the gluteal region, myoclonus on lower extremities and agitation. General anesthesia was induced to complete surgery. At the end of anesthesia, patient developed polymyoclonus and seizures needing supportive care of the hemodynamic, and respiratory systems. He developed ventricular tachycardia treated with Cordarone infusion. The patient's condition progressively improved to full recovery 2 days after. Confusion between hyperbaric bupivacaine and tranexamic acid was due to similarities in appearance between both ampules.
  10 4,290 223
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial
Amany S Ammar, Khaled M Mahmoud
July-September 2012, 6(3):229-233
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.101213  PMID:23162395
Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30) or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30). The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA), morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01), 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01) and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02). Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002), with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003) and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03). No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.
  10 6,258 628
REVIEW ARTICLES
Negative pressure pulmonary edema revisited: Pathophysiology and review of management
Balu Bhaskar, John F Fraser
July-September 2011, 5(3):308-313
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.84108  PMID:21957413
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a dangerous and potentially fatal condition with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Frequently, NPPE is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction, the large negative intrathoracic pressure generated by forced inspiration against an obstructed airway is thought to be the principal mechanism involved. This negative pressure leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular volume and pulmonary capillary transmural pressure, creating a risk of disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. The early detection of the signs of this syndrome is vital to the treatment and to patient outcome. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available literature on NPPE, while probing the pathophysiological mechanisms relevant in both the development of this condition and that involved in its resolution.
  10 14,748 1,134
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dexmedetomidine versus propofol for sedation in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery under sub-Tenon's anesthesia
Ashraf Ghali, Abdul Kader Mahfouz, Tapio Ihanamäki, Ashraf M. El Btarny
January-March 2011, 5(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.76506  PMID:21655014
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic, respiratory effects, the recovery profile, surgeons, and patients satisfaction with dexmedetomidine sedation compared with those of propofol sedation in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery under sub-Tenon's anesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients were enrolled in this prospective, single-blind, randomized study. The patients were divided into two groups to receive either dexmedetomidine (group D) or propofol (group P). Sedation level was titrated to a Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) of 3. Hemodynamic and respiratory effects, postoperative recovery time, analgesic effects, surgeons and patients satisfaction were assessed. Results: Both groups provided a similar significant reduction in heart rate and mean arterial pressure compared with baseline values. The respiratory rate values of the dexmedetomidine group were significantly higher than those in the propofol group. The oxygen saturation values of the dexmedetomidine group were significantly higher than those of the propofol group. The expired CO 2 was similar in both groups. Postoperatively, the time to achieve an Aldrete score of 10 was similar in both groups. Dexmedetomidine patients have significantly lower visual analog scale for pain than propofol patients. The surgeon satisfaction with patients' sedation was similar for both groups. The patients' satisfaction was higher in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine at similar sedation levels with propofol was associated with equivalent hemodynamic effects, maintaining an adequate respiratory function, similar time of discharge from PACU, better analgesic properties, similar surgeon's satisfaction, and higher patient's satisfaction. Thus, dexmedetomidine may prove to be a valuable adjuvant for sedation in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery under sub-Tenon's anesthesia.
  9 7,183 428
Addition of intrathecal Dexamethasone to Bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in orthopedic surgery
Nadia Bani-hashem, Bahman Hassan-nasab, Ebrahim Alijan Pour, Parviz Amri Maleh, Aliakbar Nabavi, Ali Jabbari
October-December 2011, 5(4):382-386
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.87267  
Objectives: Spinal anesthesia has the advantage that profound nerve block can be produced in a large part of the body by the relatively simple injection of a small amount of local anesthetic. Intrathecal local anesthetics have limited duration. Different additives have been used to prolong spinal anesthesia. The effect of corticosteroids in prolonging the analgesic effects of local anesthetics in peripheral nerves is well documented. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the addition of dexamethasone to intrathecal bupivacaine would prolong the duration of sensory analgesia or not. Methods: We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, case-control, clinical trial. A total of 50 patients were scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to receive 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 2 cc normal saline (control group) or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% plus 8 mg dexamethasone (case group) intrathecally. The patients were evaluated for quality, quantity, and duration of block; blood pressure, heart rate, nausea, and vomiting or other complications. Results: There were no signification differences in demographic data, sensory level, and onset time of the sensory block between two groups. Sensory block duration in the case group was 119±10.69 minutes and in the control group was 89.44±8.37 minutes which was significantly higher in the case group (P<0.001). The duration of analgesia was 401.92±72.44 minutes in the case group; whereas it was 202±43.67 minutes in the control group (P<0.001). The frequency of complications was not different between two groups. Conclusion: This study has shown that the addition of intrathecal dexamethasone to bupivacaine significantly improved the duration of sensory block in spinal anesthesia without any changes in onset time and complications.
  9 5,978 677
CASE REPORTS
My patient is allergic to eggs, can i use propofol? A case report and review
Jamal Tashkandi
September-December 2010, 4(3):207-208
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.71581  PMID:21189862
Rather than other drugs, propofol is more likely to be used for induction of anesthesia to cause an allergic reaction. Propofol is becoming the most common intravenous agent used for induction as well as maintenance of anaesthesia. Allergy to propofol is rarely reported. We present a case of 4-year-old boy presented for elective adenotonsillectomy with past medical history of eczema and multiple allergies to food. He developed what seems to be an allergic reaction to propofol. We concluded that anaesthetists should be alerted when using propofol in patients with history of atopy or several drug allergies. Current evidence suggests that egg allergic patients are not more likely to develop anaphylaxis when exposed to propofol. If reactions to drugs occurred, it is always advisable to ascertain the exact allergen in each individual case before deciding causality. Serum tryptase, skin prick, intradermal testing, or serologic testing should be done to confirm the diagnosis of an anaphylactic reaction.
  8 4,345 215
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative study of efficacy of esmolol and fentanyl for pressure attenuation during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation
Shobhana Gupta, Purvi Tank
January-March 2011, 5(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.76473  PMID:21655008
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of single bolus dose of esmolol or fentanyl in attenuating the hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Ninety adult ASA I and ASA II patients were included in the study who underwent elective surgical procedures. Patients were divided into three groups. Group C (control) receiving 10 ml normal saline, group E (esmolol) receiving bolus dose of esmolol 2 mg/kg and group F (fentanyl) receiving bolus dose of fentanyl 2 μg/kg intravenously slowly. Study drug was injected 3 min before induction of anesthesia. Heart rate, systemic arterial pressure and ECG were recorded as baseline and after administration of study drug at intubation and 15 min thereafter. Results: Reading of heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product were compared with baseline and among each group. The rise in heart rate was minimal in esmolol group and was highly significant. Also the rate pressure product at the time of intubation was minimal and was statistically significant rate 15 min thereafter in group E. Conclusion: Esmolol 2 mg/kg as a bolus done proved to be effective in attenuating rises in heart rate following laryngoscopy and intubation while the rise in blood pressure was suppressed but not abolished by bolus dose of esmolol.
  8 5,503 695
Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass
Zahra S Faritous, Nahid Aghdaie, Forouzan Yazdanian, Rasoul Azarfarin, Ali Dabbagh
April-June 2011, 5(2):167-169
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.82786  PMID:21804797
Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is an important recognized complication occurring during cardiovascular surgery procedures. This study was done to assess the perioperative risk factors related to postoperative pulmonary complications and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: It was a retrospective study on 5,497 patients, including 31 patients with prolonged ventilatory support and 5,466 patients without it; from the latter group, 350 patients with normal condition (extubated in 6-8 hours without any complication) were selected randomly. Possible perioperative risk factors were compared between the two groups using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Among the 5,497 women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 31 women needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), and 15 underwent tracheostomy. After logistic regression, 7 factors were determined as being independent perioperative risk factors for PMV. Discussion: Age ≥70 years old, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30%, preexisting respiratory or renal disease, emergency or re-do operation and use of preoperative inotropic agents are the main risk factors determined in this study on women undergoing CABG.
  8 3,222 193
Use of Airtraq, C-Mac, and Glidescope laryngoscope is better than Macintosh in novice medical students' hands: A manikin study
Abdullah M Kaki, Waleed A AlMarakbi, Hazem M Fawzi, Abdulaziz M Boker
October-December 2011, 5(4):376-381
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.87266  
Background and Aim: Obtaining patent airway is a crucial task for many physicians. When opportunities to practice intubations on patients are really limited, skill gaining methods are needed. We conducted a study among novice 6 th year medical students to assess their ability to intubate the trachea in normal airway in manikin using four airway tools. Setting and Design: Prospective, cohort study conducted at simulation center of university-based, tertiary care hospital. Methods: Fifty medical students performed either oral or nasal tracheal intubation using the following four intubating tools: C-Mac videolaryngoscope, Glidescope, and Airtraq in comparison with regular Macintosh laryngoscope. Intubation time, visualization of glottic opening, ease of intubation, satisfaction of participants, incidence of dental trauma, and the need for optimization manoeuvres' use among different airway tools were recorded. Results: In oral intubation, Airtraq was better than others in regard to intubation time, glottic opening, ease of intubation, and the need for external laryngeal pressure application, followed by Glidescope, C-Mac, and finally Macintosh laryngoscope ( P<0.001). Airtraq and Glidescope associated with less dental trauma than C-Mac and Macintosh. In nasal route, fastest intubation time was reported with Airtraq followed by Glidescope, C-Mac, and lastly Macintosh. Airtraq, Glidescope, and C-Mac were similar to each other and better than the Macintosh in regard to ease of intubation, satisfaction, and number of attempts (P≤0.008). Conclusions: New devices like Airtraq, Glidescope, and C-Mac are better than the regular Macintosh when used by novice medical students for oral and nasal intubation on manikin.
  8 3,967 282
The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study
Beena K Parikh, Vishal T Waghmare, Veena R Shah, Tanu Mehta, Beena P Butala, Geeta P Parikh, Kalpana S Vora
January-March 2013, 7(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.109808  PMID:23717232
Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG)-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN). Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S) received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%), whereas control group (group C) received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg) was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS) more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min) and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg) in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.
  8 5,015 260
Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa, Jasbir Kaur
May-August 2010, 4(2):72-79
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.65132  PMID:20927266
Background and Aims: Keeping in consideration the merits of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), a genuine attempt was made to find the ideal drug combinations which can be used in general anesthesia. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare two drug combinations of TIVA using propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl and to study the induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics following anesthesia with these techniques. Settings and Design: A case control study was conducted, which included 100 patients, in the department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive care, Government Medical College and Hospital, Patiala. Patients and Methods: A hundred patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years of either gender were divided into two groups of 50 each, and they underwent elective surgery of approximately 1 h duration. Group I received propofol-ketamine while group II received propofol-fentanyl for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. All the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically with student's unpaired t-test and chi-square test. Results : Propofol-fentanyl combination produced a significantly greater fall in pulse rate (PR; 9.28% versus 0.23%) and in both systolic (7.94% versus 0.12%) and diastolic blood pressures (BP; 8.10% versus 0.35%) as compared to propofol-ketamine during induction of anesthesia. Propofol-ketamine combination produced stable hemodynamics during maintenance phase while on the other hand propofol-fentanyl was associated with a slight increase in both PR and BP. During recovery, ventilation score was better in group I while movement and wakefulness score was better in group II. Mean time to protrusion of tongue and lifting of head was shorter in group I. Conclusions : Both propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations produce rapid, pleasant and safe anesthesia with only a few untoward side effects and only minor hemodynamic effects.
  8 8,834 1,216
Study of the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post-operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia
Harshel G Parikh, Sananta Kumar Dash, Chitra B Upasani
September-December 2010, 4(3):137-141
DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.71409  PMID:21189848
Aims: To study the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double blind study, 60 patients were divided into two groups. Group A received 600mg gabapentin and group B oral received placebo 1 h prior to surgery. Anesthesia was induced with Propofol 2 mg/kg and Vecuronium 0.1mg/kg and maintained with 60% N 2 O in O 2 and Vecuronium 0.02 mg/kg. All cases were given Fentanyl 2μg/kg as pre-medication and a repeat dose 1μg/kg at the end of the first hour. Assessment of post-operative pain was made with the visual analog score (VAS) at extubation (0 h), 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h post-operatively. Post-operative analgesia was provided with intravenous Tramadol. The first dose was given in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit as 2mg/kg, and repeated at 8 and 16 h. Rescue analgesia was given with Diclofenac 1.5mg/kg, slow intravenous. The number of doses of rescue analgesia in both the groups was noted. Results: The VAS scores at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h were 1.9 vs. 2.4 (P=0.002), 2.3 vs. 3.0 (P=0.000), 3.2 vs. 3.7 (P=0.006), 2.9 vs. 4.4 (P=0.000), 3.6 vs. 4.6 (P=0.000), and 3.7 vs.4.6 (P=0.000), respectively. Numbers of patients requiring rescue analgesia with Diclofenac were 3 vs. 14 (P=0.004). Conclusion: A single oral dose of gabapentin given pre-operatively enhanced the analgesic effect of Tramadol as it also reduced the requirement of rescue analgesia with Diclofenac.
  7 5,250 370
* Source: CrossRef
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