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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 285-402

Online since Thursday, September 5, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Quality of recovery in elderly patients with postoperative delirium Highly accessed article p. 285
Daniela Cristelo, Monica Nunes Ferreira, Joao Sarmento e Castro, Ana Rita Teles, Marta Campos, Fernando Abelha
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_747_18  
Background: Our study aimed to evaluate quality of recovery in elderly patients with postoperative delirium (POD). Subjects and Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted. Patients aged >60 submitted to elective surgery and admitted to Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) in a tertiary hospital from May to July 2017 were included. POD was evaluated with the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (NuDESC). Quality of recovery-15 (QoR-15) was used before (T0) and 24 h (T24) after surgery to assess quality of recovery. Data collection include patient's characteristics, respiratory events at the PACU, and other perioperative variables. The Chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for comparisons. Results: Of a total of 235 patients, 12.3% developed POD at PACU. POD was more frequently in patients older than 80 years (P = 0.017), patients with neurological disease (P = 0.026), dementia (P = 0.026), peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.016), and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.037). At T0, there were no differences at median total QoR-15, whereas at T24, patients POD scored lower in 10 items (including “severe pain” with P = 0.001 and “nausea or vomiting” with P = 0.009) of QoR-15 and in total median lower scores (P = 0.001). POD patients stayed longer at PACU (P = 0.017) and they stayed longer at hospital (P = 0.002). Conclusions: POD patients were older and had more comorbidities. POD patients had lower QoR scores at T24 suggesting an adverse impact of delirium in postoperative quality of recovery. POD patients stayed for long in the PACU and at hospital.
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Comparative study of fiber-optic guided tracheal intubation through intubating laryngeal mask airway LMA Fastrach™ and i-gel in adult paralyzed patients Highly accessed article p. 290
Suvidha Sood, Anupriya Saxena, Anil Thakur, Shikha Chahar
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_707_18  
Background: The i-gel is a novel and innovative supraglottic airway management device used both as an airway rescue device and as a conduit for fiberoptic intubation. In this prospective randomized study, we compared fiberoptic-guided tracheal intubation through the i-gel and LMA Fastrach™ in adult paralyzed patients. Materials and Methods: After ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 60 patients of either sex were randomly allocated to either group of supraglottic airway device (SGAD). After successful insertion of the SGAD, the fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB)-guided tracheal intubation was done through the respective SGAD. The primary objectives were the ease and time taken for fiberoptic-guided intubation in either group. Secondary variables included time taken for successful placement of SGAD, ease of insertion of SGAD, airway seal pressure, ease and time of removal of SGAD, variation in hemodynamic parameters, and complications if any. Results: Time taken for tracheal intubation in LMA Fastrach™ group was 69.53 ± 5.09 s and for the i-gel group it was 72.33 ± 6.73 s. It was seen that it was easy to insert the endotracheal tube (ETT) in 93.3% patients in the LMA Fastrach™ group and 96.7% patients in the i-gel group. Airway seal pressure was higher for the LMA Fastrach™ group. Both the SGADs were comparable in the number of attempts of insertion, ease of insertion, and insertion time. In addition, the hemodynamic variables noted did not show any increase after insertion of SGAD. There was no difficulty encountered in removal of either SGAD. Conclusion: I-gel may be a reliable and cost-effective alternative to LMA Fastrach™ for fibreoptic-guided tracheal intubation.
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Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus conventional palpatory method of dorsalis pedis artery cannulation: A randomized controlled trial p. 295
Rahul Kumar Anand, Souvik Maitra, Bikas Ranjan Ray, Dalim Kumar Baidhya, Puneet Khanna, Sumit Roy Chowdhury, Rajeshwari Subramaniam
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_766_18  
Background: Whether use of ultrasound (USG) to cannulate dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) increases first pass successful cannulation, decreases the number of attempts and complications as compared to palpation technique was assessed in this study. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Operating room. Patients: About 60 adult patients undergoing any head–neck or faciomaxillary surgery requiring arterial cannulation were enrolled. Intervention: DPA was cannulated either by USG-guided technique (USG group) or by palpation technique (palpation group) with 30 patients in each group. Measurement: Data were assessed for “ first-attempt success” of cannulation, number of attempts, assessment time, cannulation time, cannulation failure, and incidence of complications. Main Results: Successful first pass DPA cannulation was similar between the groups (ultrasound group vs. palpation group, 76.7% vs. 60%, respectively) [relative risk (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69 (0.43, 1.13), P = 0.267)] as was the number of attempts required for successful cannulation [median (interquartile range (IQR) number of attempts 1 (1–2) in palpation group P and USG group U 1 (1–1); P = 0.376]. Median (IQR) assessment time was significantly less (P < 0.0004) in palpation group [palpation group 12 (9–17) vs. USG group U 19 (15–21)]. However, cannulation time was significantly higher (P = 0.0093) in Group P [median (IQR) 17.5 (12–36 s) and 11.5 (9–15)]. Although the total procedure time (sum of both assessment time and cannulation time) remain statistically similar between two groups (P = 0.8882). Conclusions: Use of USG for the cannulation of DPA is feasible, but it is not associated with significant increase in first-attempt success rate, decrease in total number of cannulation attempts or total procedure time.
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Effect of magnesium and lignocaine on post-craniotomy pain: A comparative, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study p. 299
Charu Mahajan, Rajeeb Kumar Mishra, Bhagya Ranjan Jena, Indu Kapoor, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Girija Prasad Rath, Arvind Chaturvedi
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_837_18  
Background: Lignocaine and Magnesium have an analgesic action and reduce perioperative opioid requirements. We carried out this study to evaluate the effect of magnesium and lignocaine on postoperative pain as assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and fentanyl consumption. We also measured S-100 B levels and noted the side effect of drugs if any. Materials and Methods: In this prospective preliminary study, 45 patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy for tumor surgery were randomized to receive either lignocaine (group I-1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/h infusion), saline (Group II) or magnesium (group III: bolus of 50 mg/kg followed by 25 mg/kg/hr) intraoperatively. The amount of fentanyl required, VAS over first 24 hours and any side effects were noted. S100 B levels were also measured to assess brain protective effect of these drugs, if any. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for analysis of data and a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: None of the patient experienced any adverse hemodynamic effect intraoperatively secondary to the study drugs. The amount of intraoperative fentanyl consumption was comparable among the three groups. The mean VAS score was significantly less in group I and III [Group I (15.3 ± 6.0), Group II (24.8 ± 6.7), Group III (17.9 ± 7.6); (P < 0.01)]. The fentanyl consumed in first 24 hours was significantly less in those patients who received lignocaine and magnesium [Group I (204.4 ± 136.4), Group II (383 ± 168.2), Group III (194 ± 148.9); (P = 0.01)]. S100 value did not differ in the lignocaine and the saline group during the perioperative period. However, a significant decline was noted in the levels of S100 B in the magnesium group. Conclusion: Intraoperative infusion of lignocaine and magnesium results in lower VAS score and decreases the postoperative opioid requirement in patients undergoing craniotomy for excision of supratentorial tumors.
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Analgesia nociception index and hemodynamic changes during skull pin application for supratentorial craniotomies in patients receiving scalp block versus pin-site infiltration: A randomized controlled trial p. 306
Kaushic A Theerth, Kamath Sriganesh, Dhritiman Chakrabarti, K R Madhusudan Reddy, G S Umamaheswara Rao
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_812_18  
Background: Noxious stimulation such as skull pin insertion for craniotomy elicits a significant hemodynamic response. Both regional analgesic techniques (pin-site infiltration [PSI] and scalp block [SB]), and systemic strategies (opioids, alpha-2 agonists, anesthetics, and beta-blockers) have shown to attenuate this response. Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) provides objective information about the magnitude of nociception and adequacy of analgesia. This study compared ANI and hemodynamic changes in patients receiving local anesthetic SB versus PSI during skull pin application for craniotomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients scheduled for elective supratentorial tumor surgery were randomly allocated to receive local anesthetic SB or PSI for skull pin insertion after the induction of anesthesia. Data regarding heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and ANI were collected every minute for 5 min after the skull pin insertion beginning from the baseline. Results: A significant difference was observed in ANI values between the SB (higher ANI) and the PSI groups during skull pin insertion, P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 for ANIi and ANIm, respectively. Similarly, a significant difference was seen in HR and BP both within and between the two groups during skull pin insertion (P < 0.001 for both). The magnitude and duration of change were smaller in the SB group compared with the PSI group for the parameters studied. A strong negative linear correlation was noted between ANI and hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions: The changes in HR, BP, and ANI were significantly less with local anesthetic SB compared with PSI during skull pin insertion in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy.
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Role of IVC collapsibility index to predict post spinal hypotension in pregnant women undergoing caesarean section. An observational trial p. 312
Yudhyavir Singh, Rahul K Anand, Stuti Gupta, Sumit Roy Chowdhury, Souvik Maitra, Dalim K Baidya, Akhil K Singh
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_27_19  
Background: Postspinal anesthesia hypotension (PSH) in pregnant women is common and may lead to poor maternal and fetal outcome. Fluid loading in pregnant women before spinal anesthesia to prevent hypotension is of limited ability. We hypothesized that those women who are hypovolemic before spinal anesthesia may be at risk of PSH and inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVCCI) will be able to identify hypovolemic parturients. Methods: In this prospective observational study, n = 45 women undergoing elective lower segment cesarean section with singleton pregnancy were recruited and IVCCI in left lateral tilt (with wedge) and supine position (without wedge) were noted by M-mode ultrasound (USG) before spinal anesthesia. After spinal anesthesia, changes in blood pressure were noted till 15 min after spinal anesthesia. Results: USG measurements were obtained in 40 patients and 23 of 40 patients (57.5%) had at least one episode of hypotension. Area under the ROC curve of IVCCI with wedge to predict PSH was 0.46 (95% CI 0.27, 0.64) and best cut-of value was 25.64 with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 35.5%, respectively. Area under the ROC curve of IVCCI without wedge to predict PSH was 0.38 (95% CI 0.19, 0.56) and best cut-of value was 20.4 with a sensitivity and specificity of 69.6% and 23.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that IVCCI is not a predictor of PSH in pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section.
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Comparative evaluation of forced air warming and infusion of amino acid–enriched solution on intraoperative hypothermia in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgeries: A prospective randomised study p. 318
Nishkarsh Gupta, Sachidanand Jee Bharti, Vinod Kumar, Rakesh Garg, Seema Mishra, Sushma Bhatnagar
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_839_18  
Background: Inadvertent core hypothermia is a common occurrence during general anaesthesia. Forced air warming (FAW) is the most effective perianaesthetic warming system, but it may lead to thermal discomfort. Amino acids (AAs) have been used to prevent hypothermia, but no study has compared the effect of AA infusion with FAW systems. We have conducted this study to compare the effects of external heating (FAW system) and internal heat generation (AA infusion) in preventing hypothermia during anaesthesia. Methods: After institutional review board approval, 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I/II adult patients admitted for head and neck cancer surgeries lasting more than 2 h under general anaesthesia were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups using computer-generated codes to receive AA infusion at 3 mL/kg/h, Group AA (N = 40), or normal saline at 3 mL/kg/h with FAW, Group FA (N = 40) till the end of surgery. Standard anaesthetic technique and monitoring was used in all the patients. Results: The baseline mean temperature in both the groups was comparable. The core temperature was similar in the two groups at 30 min (35.6 ± 0.54 vs 35.5 ± 0.54), 60 min (35.5 ± 0.63 vs 35.3 ± 0.60), 90 min (35.5 ± 0.79 vs 35.2 ± 0.66), 120 min (35.6 ± 0.93 vs 35.2 ± 0.78), 150 min (35.7 ± 0.88 vs 35.3 ± 0.89) and 180 min (35.8 ± 1.01 vs 35.3 ± 0.95) in Groups FA and AA, respectively (P > 0.05). However, the core temperature was significantly higher in Group FA at 210 min (35.8 ± 1.0 vs 35.3 ± 0.85; P = 0.01), 240 min (35.9 ± 1.0 vs 35.4 ± 0.90; (P = 0.001), 270 min (35.9 ± 1.12 vs 35.6 ± 0.97; P = 0.002) and 300 min (36.0 ± 1.12 vs 35.6 ± 1.02; P = 0.002), respectively. Clinically relevant hypothermia (at least one measurement <35.5°C) was comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: The AA infusion can be used as an alternative to FAW in preventing intraoperative hypothermia under general anaesthesia especially in places where FAW system is unavailable.
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Comparison of efficacy of ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block versus thoracic paravertebral block using levobupivacaine and dexamethasone for postoperative analgesia after modified radical mastectomy: A randomized controlled trial p. 325
Ashwini Siddeshwara, Geeta Singariya, Manoj Kamal, Kamlesh Kumari, Satyanarayan Seervi, Rakesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_25_19  
Background and Aims: Pectoral nerve (PecS II) block is the latest modality for providing postoperative analgesia after breast surgery. The present study was planned to compare the analgesic efficacy of thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) and PecS II for postoperative analgesia after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods: A total of 40 female patients undergoing radical mastectomy were randomly allocated into two groups (n = 20). Group T received ultrasound-guided TPVB, while group P received PecS II block using 0.25% levobupivacaine 24 ml + dexamethasone 1 ml (4 mg) before induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia (time to request first analgesic dose), while total rescue analgesic consumption in first 24 h, numeric rating score (NRS), and complication were secondary outcomes. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 22.0. Results: The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in the group P than group T (474.1 ± 84.93 versus 371.5 ± 51.53 min, respectively; P < 0.0001). Postoperative morphine consumed at 24 h was less in the group P than group T (11.25 ± 4.75 and 15.0 ± 4.86 mg, respectively; P = 0.018). NRS at movement and rest were lower in the group P as compared to group T at all time intervals (median 3 versus 4). No block-related complication was recorded in any group. Conclusions: The 0.25% levobupivacaine with dexamethasone 4 mg in PecS II block provided longer duration of analgesia than the TPVB in patients undergoing MRM without any adverse effects.
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A comprehensive analysis of patient satisfaction with anesthesia p. 332
Elena Sinbukhova, Andrey Lubnin
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_249_19  
Background: Patient satisfaction with anesthesia after surgical treatment is a complex concept that includes not only the level of satisfaction with the anesthesia itself but also the presence of fears, worries, depression, evaluation of the anesthesiologists' work, as well as cognitive dysfunction as a possible negative consequence of anesthesia. Objective: Conducting a comprehensive analysis of patients' satisfaction with anesthesia. Methods: Questionnaire of patients' satisfaction with anesthesia (Sinbukhova E.V., Lubnin A.Yu.), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in the adaptation by Y.L. Hanin, Assessment of Depression, The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Frontal Assessment Battery. Population consisted of 202 patients. Results: Satisfaction with anesthesia: assessment “good and higher” with primary anesthesia – 59.7% of patients with repeated – 70% of patients. The most common factors that reduce the assessment of patients' satisfaction with anesthesia are: strong excitement before surgery about operation and anesthesia, no postoperative visit of the anesthesiologist, no visit of the anesthesiologist before the operation, not enough attention of anesthesiologist in the surgery room before anesthesia, nausea, vomiting, pain, dizziness, general discomfort, and thirst. MoCA cognitive assessment before and after anesthesia: P < 2.2 e–16 (significant decrease). Depression: major depression in 52% of patients, subclinical depression in 22.8%. Conclusion: Regular survey of patients' satisfaction should help to improve the quality of medical care. The strong excitement of the patient about the upcoming anesthesia and surgery, and the presence of a high level of anxiety and depression can be factors of reducing the patients' satisfaction with anesthesia. It requires psychological support of patients at the stage of surgical treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Airway management of palatoglossal bands – A challenge to an anaesthesiologist p. 338
Vandana Pandey, Vaishali Waindeskar, Rishi Katiyar, Sanjay Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_677_18  
Palatoglossal bands are one of the very rare congenital anomaly with very few documented cases worldwide. They can present with respiratory distress which requires immediate surgical intervention, or with feeding difficulties. The management of such a patient is a challenge to any anaesthesiologist because of inability to perform conventional laryngoscopy and associated cardiac or digital anomalies. We discuss here the management of such an infant who presented at 18 months with feeding difficulties.
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Efficacy of low dose bupivacaine with intrathecal fentanyl for cesarean section on maternal hemodynamic: Systemic review and meta-analysis p. 340
Semagn Mekonnen Abate, Akine Eshete Belihu
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_17_19  
Hypotension during spinal Anesthesia is the most common complication with maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Low dose bupivacaine with intrathecal fentanyl is recommended as strategy to prevent spinal Anesthesia induced hypotension and related complications. The aim of this systemic review is to evaluate the efficacy of low dose bupivacaine with Intrathecal fentanyl on the improvement of maternal and neonatal outcomes compared to conventional dose bupivacaine among mothers who undergone cesarean section. We conducted a systemic search of the electronic databases of Pubmed, Medline, LILACS and others with PICO strategy for randomized controlled clinical trials comparing low dose bupivacaine with fentanyl and conventional dose bupivacaine for cesarean section. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) standardized data extraction form was used for data extraction and finally entered into Review Manager for data synthesis. Ten Randomized trials (552) were included in this review. Incidence of hypotension was less likely in mothers who received low dose bupivacaine with Fentanyl as compared to those with conventional dose of bupivacaine alone (RR = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.47, ten trials, 552 participants). The review revealed that Low dose bupivacaine combined with intrathecal Fentanyl decrease incidence of hypotension.
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Is positive publication bias really a bias, or an intentionally created discrimination toward negative results? p. 352
Hunny Sharma, Swati Verma
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_124_19  
Today in publish or perish era, where manuscripts and research with successfully proven hypothesis or positive results are given more importance by journals, editors, funders, and institutions. The publication of researches with negative or null results is on the verge of extinction, thus creating an intentional bias known as publication bias. This review aims to discuss the consequence of the undermined importance of negative results and problems associated with it and will elaborate the importance of reporting negative results. Under-reporting of negative results not only wastes other researchers time, money, and manpower on which their researchers will be based but also introduces bias in meta-analysis leading to distortion of the scientific literature and misleads researchers, doctors, and policymakers in their decision-making. Many such important studies with negative results remain unpublished and therefore unavailable to the scientific community for understanding their values. A large number of human studies with huge risk to life's are carried out with the assurance that the proposed study will be performed with the aim to benefit, and results will be dissipated to everyone concerned, non-publication of such studies with negative results will not only be morally wrong but will also have ethical obligations to deal with. Therefore, all journals and their editor along with researchers and stakeholders need to be generous in giving importance to disseminating negative and positive findings alike.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Anesthetic management of stab wound in right ventricle of heart p. 356
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Hameed Ullah
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_2_19  
Stab wound in right ventricle of heart requires a prompt and focused surgical intervention. Cardiac tamponade is a common finding when dealing with stabbed hearts, which must be diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. We report a case of 28-year-old man who presented in emergency department following accidental stab trauma during a religious ceremony. The challenges faced in the perioperative period were the management of impending cardiac tamponade and hemodynamic stability.
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Epinephrine-induced electrical storm after aortic surgery p. 359
Adam L Weinstein, Neal S Gerstein, Josh I Santos, Peter M Schulman
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_745_18  
Electrical storm (ES) is a potentially lethal syndrome defined as three or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 h. There are multiple inciting factors for ES, one of which involves excess catecholamine (endogenous and exogenous) effects. Exogenous catecholamines used for hemodynamic support can paradoxically engender or exacerbate an underling arrhythmia leading to ES. We report on an 63-year-old man who presented for repair of an ascending aortic dissection. After cardiopulmonary bypass separation assisted with high-dose epinephrine, ES developed requiring over 40 defibrillatory shocks. The epinephrine infusion was held and within 5 min, the ES self-terminated. ES in the context of cardiovascular surgery with the use of epinephrine for hemodynamic support has not be previously reported. Clinicians need to be cognizant of the seemingly paradoxical effect of epinephrine to induce ES. Initial ES treatment involves acute stabilization (treating or removing exacerbating factors (i.e., excess catecholamines)).
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Recurrent asystole during laryngoscopy – A nightmare for the anesthesiologists p. 362
Stalin Vinayagam, Sangeeta Dhanger
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_6_19  
Hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation is usually transient, but it may be more pronounced and unpredictable in certain group of patients. Bradycardia and asystole during laryngoscopy is usually a rare manifestation compared to hypertension and tachycardia. Anesthesiologists should be more vigilant and take special precautions to avoid such life-threatening complications during laryngoscopy. Here, we report recurrent asystole on multiple occasions during laryngoscopy in a patient with obstructive jaundice.
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Novel block and new indication: Ultrasound-guided continuous “mid-point transverse process to pleura” block in a patient with multiple rib fractures p. 365
Rashmi Syal, Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Kamal, Pradeep Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_773_18  
To avoid the complications related to thoracic epidural and paravertebral block, we performed mid-point transverse process to pleura (MTP) block in a patient with multiple rib fractures. A patient with 2nd--5th rib fractures came with complains of severe pain and difficulty in breathing. Ultrasound (US)-guided continuous MTP block was given at T4 level and 15 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine was deposited, followed by the catheter insertion at the same level. Patient reported decreased sensation from T2--T8 dermatomes and reduced VAS scores from 9/10 to 1/10 within 20 min of block insertion. Continuous MTP block is efficacious in providing thoracic analgesia and has higher safety margin as needle is inserted further away from pleura.
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Acute baroreflex-mediated hemodynamic instability during thyroid surgery: A case report p. 368
Eun Kyung Choi, Hyojin Kwon, Suyong Park
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_76_19  
During thyroid surgery, intraoperative hemodynamic instability can be attributed to episodic surges of thyroid hormones. Thyroid storms are emergency situations characterized by persistent hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and end-organ damage. However, baroreflex-mediated neurogenic phenomena due to surgical procedures near the carotid sinus are a likely cause of acute hemodynamic changes during thyroid surgery. We describe a case of sudden hemodynamic instability occurring after thyroid manipulation during thyroidectomy in a 61-year-old man who presented with a 6-cm-sized thyroid mass in a euthyroid state.
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Interscalene plexus block and general anesthesia in Brugada syndrome p. 371
Monica Nunes Ferreira, Sara Fontes, Humberto Machado
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_47_19  
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a channelopathy predisposing to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Perioperative pharmacological and physiological changes may precipitate these events and cardiac dysfunction. We report the efficacy and safety interscalene brachial plexus block combined with general anesthesia in a patient with BrS. Awake and double-guided interscalene block was performed. After performing the block, general anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium and maintained with oxygen-air/sevoflurane mixture. Sugammadex was administered for neuromuscular reversal. During perioperative period, the patient remained hemodynamically stable with anormal sinus rhythm and no ST segment changes. Hospital discharged occurred 36h after surgery without complications. General recommendations include avoidance of increased vagal tone, correction of electrolytes disturbances, maintenance of normothermia, normocapnia, adequate analgesia, and an adequately deep plane of anesthesia. Interscalene block combined with general anesthesia provided good analgesia, hemodynamic and cardiac electric stability.
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Perioperative myocardial infarction in a young adult after percutaneous nephrolithotomy p. 374
Rajnish Kumar, Ravi Vishnu Prasad, Vinod Kumar Verma
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_813_18  
The causes of myocardial infarction in a young adult can be divided into four groups: (1) atherosclerosis, (2) nonatherosclerosis, (3) hypercoagulable states, and (4) substance abuse. We present here a case of the 29-year-old male patient who developed myocardial infarction after undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Prompt diagnosis and timely intervention salvaged his myocardium.
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Transversus abdominus blocks instead of general anesthesia in a child p. 377
Faris AlGhamdi, Mohammad AlSuhebani, Joseph D Tobias
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_433_19  
The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block that was originally described in 2001. Considering the sensory distribution of the TAP block, which does not provide visceral anesthesia, it has been used primarily for postoperative analgesia. We present the use of a TAP block as the sole anesthetic for placement of a cutaneous vesicostomy in a 4-year-old child with multiple comorbid conditions. The basic principles of the TAP block are presented, and its previous use instead of general in various clinical scenarios is reviewed.
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Combined PENG and LFCN blocks for postoperative analgesia in hip surgery-A case report p. 381
Ahmed Thallaj
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_299_19  
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered an extremely painful procedure. Postoperative analgesic technique especially in an elderly with significant comorbidities is even more challenging. Pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block is a novel technique that has been described recently as an effective analgesic method for hip surgery. We report a case of a successful PENG and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia in THA.
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Wilson disease – Challenge for safe anesthesia! p. 384
Arminder Kaur, Kewal K Gupta, Gagan Deep, Simpkia Thakur
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_12_19  
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Syncope during application of stereotactic head frame. Possible etiologies during an otherwise innocuous procedure p. 385
Rudrashish Haldar, Manish Kumar Singh, Shweta Chitranshi
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_13_19  
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Neuromuscular blockade: The importance of T.O.F. (Think outside the frame!) p. 387
Felice Eugenio Agrò, Giuseppe Pascarella, Chiara Piliego
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_21_19  
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‘Fibreoptic in Tracheal Lumen’ (FIT) technique: A novel real-time double-lumen tube placement technique with fiberoptic bronchoscope p. 388
Lakesh K Anand, Manpreet Singh, Jasveer Singh, Dheeraj Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_821_18  
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Triton sponge and canister app for estimating surgical blood loss p. 390
Abhijit S Nair, Vibhavari Naik, Narahari Busa, Basanth K Rayani
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_38_19  
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Misdiagnosis of severe aortic stenosis instead of severe eccentric mitral regurgitation: Possible causes and ways for prevention p. 391
Ajay Kumar, Kumar Rajanikant, Sundar Negi, Ankush Singla
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_92_19  
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Writing case reports for a bioethics journal: Simplified p. 393
Thorakkal Shamim
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_161_19  
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Ultrasound guided selective upper trunk block for clavicle surgery p. 394
Palanichamy Gurumoorthi, Tuhin Mistry, Kartik B Sonawane, Senthilkumar Balasubramanian
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_134_19  
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Modified erector spinae block for modified radical mastectomy: A novel technique p. 395
Amarjeet Kumar, Chandni Sinha, Ajeet Kumar, Poonam Kumari
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_266_19  
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Severe skin extravasation injury following intravenous injection of potassium chloride p. 397
Freda C Richa, Viviane R Chalhoub, Christine F El-Hage, Patricia H Yazbeck
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_451_19  
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Regarding the paper published ‘Ultrasound-guided lumbar transforaminal injection through interfacet approach’ p. 398
Preeti Soni, Jyotsna Punj
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_465_19  
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Thoracic paravertebral and erector spinae plane block: A cadaveric study demonstrating different site of injections and similar destinations p. 399
Sandeep Diwan, Rajendra Garud, Abhijit Nair
DOI:10.4103/sja.SJA_339_19  
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NOTICE OF RETRACTION Top

Retraction: Comparative study of mid-thoracic spinal versus epidural anesthesia for open nephrectomy in patients with obstructive/restrictive lung disease: A randomized controlled study p. 402

DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.188620  
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