Development and validation of Arabic version of the postoperative quality of recovery-40 questionnaire
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi1, Paul S Myles2, Waleed Riad3, Sumaya Nemer Nassar3, Maissa Mahmoud3, Ghadah Jumaan AlKahtani4, Fatima Jaina Sala4, Anas Abdulrahman4, Khaled S Doais4, Rayan Suliman Terkawi5, Siny Tsang6
1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, OH, USA
2 Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Australia
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
4 Department of Anesthesiology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Surgery, Sanad Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, USA
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: The postoperative quality of recovery-40 (QoR-40) is one of the most frequently used tools to assess the quality of recovery after surgery. The aim of the current study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the QoR-40 questionnaire in Arabic.
Methods: A systematic translation process was used to translate the original English QoR-40 into Arabic. After the pilot study, the translated version was validated among patients who underwent different types of surgeries. The reliability (using internal consistency) and validity of our translated Arabic version was examined. To investigate the responsiveness of the translated QoR-40, the questionnaire was administered five times among the same group of patients (once before surgery as baseline measure, and four times after surgery, up to 1 week after surgery).
Results: A total of 182 participants (7 men, 175 women) were included in the study. The QoR-40 total scale and all subscales showed excellent internal consistencies over time, with the exception of the QoR-40 pain subscale at postoperative day 1. The QoR-40 total and subscale scores were inversely associated with patients' self-report pain scores but positively correlated with patients' self-report recovery scores. Patients' QoR-40 total, comfort, emotions, and physical subscale scores increased over time after surgery, indicating a general trend of recovery over time. Patients' scores in the QoR-40 pain and support subscales remained stable over time, suggesting no substantial changes were reported in these two domains. Quality of recovery was also found to be related to patients' ages, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status, and the extent of surgery (major vs. minor). Most patients found the Arabic QoR-40 questions to be clear and easy to understand and thought the questionnaire items covered all their problem areas regarding their quality of recovery.
Conclusion: Our translated version of QoR-40 was reliable and valid for use among Arabic-speaking patients. In addition, the QoR-40 was able to assess the quality of recovery in several domains among patients who underwent surgical procedures.