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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 74-80

Induced hypotension in ambulatory functional endoscopic sinus surgery: A comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine as premedication. A prospective, double-blind, and randomized study


1 Department of Anaesthesiology, College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Anaesthesiology, N.R.S Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Anaesthesiology, Murshidabad Medical College, Berhampore, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Anaesthesiology, Midnapore Medical College and Hospital, Midnapore, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
A Das
174, Gorakshabashi Road, Royal Plaza Apartment (4th Floor, Flat No. 1), Nagerbazar, Kolkata - 700 028, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.169480

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Date of Web Publication12-Nov-2015
 

  Abstract 

Background: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the mainstay of a therapeutic technique for nasal pathologies. This study is to compare the ability of preoperative dexmedetomidine versus clonidine for producing controlled hypotensive anesthesia during FESS in adults in an ambulatory care setting.
Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (25-50 years) posted for ambulatory FESS procedures under general anesthesia were randomly divided into Group C and D (n = 33 each) receiving dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1.5 μg/kg, respectively; both diluted in 100 ml saline solution 15 min before anesthetic induction. Nasal bleeding and surgeon's satisfaction score; amount and number of patients receiving fentanyl and nitroglycerine for analgesia and deliberate hypotension, duration of hypotension, post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital stay; hemodynamic parameters and side effects were recorded for each patient.
Results: Number and dosage of nitroglycerine used was significantly (P = 0.034 and 0.0001 respectively) lower in Group D compared to that in Group C. Similarly, number of patients requiring fentanyl and dosage of same was significantly lower in Group D. But, the duration of controlled hypotension was almost similar in both the groups. Group D patients suffered from significantly less nasal bleeding and surgeon's satisfaction score was also high in this group. Discharge from PACU was significantly earlier in Group D, but hospital discharge timing was quite comparable among two groups. Intraoperative hemodynamics was significantly lower in Group D (P < 0.05) without any appreciable side effects.
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine found to be providing more effectively controlled hypotension and analgesia, and thus, allowing less nasal bleeding as well as more surgeons' satisfaction score.

Keywords: Ambulatory (day care); clonidine; dexmedetomidine; functional endoscopic sinus surgery; mean arterial pressure


How to cite this article:
Das A, Mukherjee A, Chhaule S, Chattopadhyay S, Halder P S, Mitra T, Basunia S R, Mandal S K. Induced hypotension in ambulatory functional endoscopic sinus surgery: A comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine as premedication. A prospective, double-blind, and randomized study. Saudi J Anaesth 2016;10:74-80

How to cite this URL:
Das A, Mukherjee A, Chhaule S, Chattopadhyay S, Halder P S, Mitra T, Basunia S R, Mandal S K. Induced hypotension in ambulatory functional endoscopic sinus surgery: A comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine as premedication. A prospective, double-blind, and randomized study. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Dec 7];10:74-80. Available from: http://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2016/10/1/74/169480


  Introduction Top


Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is indicated for the surgical management of acute and chronic sinus pathologies when conservative management has failed. [1] With the advantage of enhanced illumination and visualization, it has dramatically improved surgical dissection. Impaired visibility due to excessive bleeding is a major hurdle that has been reported for FESS under general anesthesia (GA). [2] Intraoperative bleeding may be reduced most effectively by induced systemic hypotension. There are several important advantages of using the intentional hypotensive anesthetic technique during the FESSs like reduction in blood loss, hence, reduction in blood transfusion rate, improvement in the surgical field, and reduction of the duration of surgery. In hypotensive anesthesia, the patient's baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) is reduced by 30% or MAP was kept at 60-70 mm Hg. [3],[4]

For achieving controlled hypotension, several agents such as nitroglycerine, [5] higher dose of inhaled anesthetics, [6] sodium nitroprusside like vasodilator [7],[8] and β blocker [5],[7] have been used either alone or in combination with each other; however, an ideal agent for inducing controlled hypotension cannot be asserted. The ideal agent used for controlled hypotension must have certain characteristics such as a short onset time, rapid elimination without toxic metabolites, easy to administer an effect that disappears quickly when administration is discontinued, and dose-dependent predictable effects. [9]

Perioperative bleeding and transfusion requirement are major complications of FESS, [10] which frequently hampers implementation of the surgery in an ambulatory care basis. Perioperative bleeding increases the duration of surgery, and postoperative bleeding has a negative impact on patient's early discharge, as well as it causes unanticipated hospital admission particularly in a day care setting. [11]

Clonidine is a selective α2 -adrenergic agonist with some α1 -agonist property. In clinical studies on FESS, preoperative intravenous (IV) administration of clonidine can reduce surgical time and improve surgical results through a less bloody field. [12] Oral clonidine premedication also yielded similar results during FESS. [13],[14]

Dexmedetomidine is highly selective (8 times more selective than clonidine), [15] specific, and potent α2 -adrenergic agonist having analgesic, sedative, antihypertensive, and anesthetic sparing effects when used in the systemic route. [16] Prior administration of dexmedetomidine can also provide a hypotensive anesthesia, a better surgical field, and finally an abbreviated operative duration. [17],[18]

The aim and objective of this study was primarily to compare the efficacy for producing controlled hypotension by preoperative IV dexmedetomidine and clonidine during FESS in adults in an ambulatory care setting. The secondary goal was to compare the two agents in the regard of visibility of the surgical field, satisfaction of the surgeons, recovery profile, adverse effects, and postoperative need for analgesia.


  Materials and Methods Top


After obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee, written informed consent was taken. Total 66 adult patients were randomly allocated to two equal groups (n = 33 in each group) using computer generated random number list. Between 2009 July and 2010 February, patients having American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, aged between 25 and 50 years of both sexes undergoing FESS under GA, were enrolled in the study. Patients in Group D received IV dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg diluted in 100 ml saline solution, 15 min before anesthetic induction. Similarly, patients in Group C received IV clonidine 1.5 μg/kg diluted in 100 ml saline solution, 15 min before anesthetic induction. In both the groups, solution was transfused over 10 min. Study drug was diluted in an equal amount of normal saline in both the groups and transfused over similar time for blinding purpose. The study participants, operation nurse, and the ENT surgeon constituted the "blind" study group. The anesthesiologist performing the GA was unaware of the constituent of the premedication drug and allotment of the group, and similarly, resident doctors keeping records of different parameters were also unaware of group allotment. Thus, blinding was properly maintained.

For topical vasoconstriction and local anesthesia, 1/1000 epinephrine soaked cotton was placed in the nasal cavity for 5 min. A solution containing (2%) 20 mg/mL lignocaine hydrochloride +0.01 mg/mL epinephrine (Ligno-Ad, Kopran Laboratories Ltd, India) was applied to the nasal side of both the medial and lateral conchae at the same dose.

Exclusion criteria

Patient refusal, any known hypersensitivity or contraindication to clonidine, dexmedetomidine, nitroglycerine, fentanyl; pregnancy, lactating mothers, hepatic, renal or cardiopulmonary abnormality, alcoholism, diabetes, patients on calcium channel blockers, and bleeding diathesis were excluded from the study. Patients having a history of significant neurological, psychiatric, or neuromuscular disorders were also excluded. Bilateral ethmoidal polyp, bilateral extensive sinusitis, orbital abscess, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak with or without CSF rhinorrhea, pediatric age group patients, orbital decompression surgery all were also excluded. As we were dealing with day care surgery, patients having no assistance in home and dwelling at more than 10 km from our institution were also excluded from this study.

In the preoperative assessment, the patients were enquired about any history of drug allergy, previous operations, or prolonged drug treatment. General examination, systemic examinations, and assessment of the airway were done. Preoperative fasting of minimum 6 h was ensured before the operation in all day care cases. All patients received premedication of tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg orally the night before surgery as per preanesthetic check-up direction to allay anxiety, apprehension, and for sound sleep. The patients also received tablet ranitidine 150 mg in the previous night and in the morning of operation with sips of water. All patients were investigated for hemoglobin (Hb%), packed cell volume, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, blood sugar, blood urea, serum creatinine, and liver function tests. A 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and chest X-ray were also taken. Perioperatively standard monitors were attached, and pulse rate, respiratory rate, arterial oxygen saturation, ECG, capnography, systolic, diastolic, and MAP were monitored continuously. Philips IntelliVue (MP20) monitor was used for this purpose. IV infusion of Ringers' lactate started 2 h before the operation. After 15 min of receiving premedication in the form of clonidine and dexmedetomidine, all the patients were preoxygenated with 100% oxygen for a period of 5 min. Injection fentanyl (2 μg /kg) and glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) were given IV 3 min before induction of anesthesia. All the patients were induced with injection propofol (2 mg/kg). After that, atracurium (0.5 mg/kg) was given to facilitate laryngoscopy and intubation. Laryngoscopy, intubation, and cuff inflation were completed within 20 s in all cases. Muscle relaxation was maintained with intermittent IV atracurium (0.2 mg/kg) as and when required. Controlled ventilation was maintained manually with 33% oxygen in 66% nitrous oxide and isoflurane up to 1-2 MAC using Boyle's apparatus to achieve a target bispectral index (BIS) between 40 and 60 and end-tidal CO 2 pressure between 32 and 40 mmHg.

At the completion of surgery, the residual neuromuscular blockade was antagonized at the train- of-four ratio more than 0.7 with neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IV, and patient was extubated when BIS ≥70. After extubation, all patients were transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). All patients were clinically examined in the preoperative period when the whole procedure was explained.

When preoperative MAP was ≥70 mm of Hg, 50 μg of nitroglycerine was applied; again when MAP was ≤55 mm Hg, 5 mg of mephentermine was applied. When heart rate (HR) was ≤50, 0.6 mg IV atropine was applied to combat bradycardia. The presence of hypertension or tachycardia during anesthesia, while BIS was 40-60, was attributed to insufficient analgesia and a bolus dose of fentanyl 1 μg/kg was given.

The time for PACU stay (admission-discharge from PACU) and hospital discharge (eye opening-discharge from hospital), and the incidence of adverse events (shivering, bradycardia [HR <60 bpm], hypotension [systolic blood pressure <100mm Hg], nausea, vomiting) were also recorded. Patients were considered ready for discharge from the PACU when the modified aldrete postanesthesia score was ≥9. Patients were transferred to the ward after being discharged from PACU. For nausea and vomiting, ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg IV was administered. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon, and the surgical site was rated according to a 6-point scale every 5 min by him in terms of bleeding and dryness [Table 1]. Surgeon's satisfaction was scored by the same surgeon with a 4-point scale [Table 1].
Table 1: Surgical bleeding score and surgeon satisfaction score

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Statistical analysis

Sample size was based on a crossover pilot study of 10 patients and was selected to detect a 40% reduction in the requirements of additional hypotensive agent nitroglycerine to achieve the target MAP (60-70 mm Hg) with a power of 80% and (α error = 0.05, β error = 0.2), the sample size calculated was 54 patients (27/group), to be able to reject the null hypothesis which will be increased to 66 patients (33/group) for possible dropouts. Raw data were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using standard statistical software SPSS ® statistical package version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Categorical variables were analyzed using the Pearson's Chi-square test. Fisher's exact test was used in the comparison of bradycardia, hypotension, vomiting, shivering, and number of patients requiring fentanyl and nitroglycerine administration. Normally distributed continuous variables were analyzed using the independent sample t-test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results and Analysis Top


We recruited 33 subjects per group, more than the calculated sample size. There were no dropouts. 33 patients in the dexmedetomidine Group (D) and 33 in the clonidine Group (C) were eligible for effectiveness analysis.

The age, sex distribution, body weight, height, ASA status, preoperative Hb, and packed cell volume were found to be comparable [Table 2]. Duration of surgery and anesthesia time in the two groups was also similar and had no clinical significance (P > 0.05) [Table 3]. Duration of controlled hypotension was more sustained but statistically insignificant in the Group D than Group C. PACU discharge (time to reach aldrete score ≥9) time and hospital discharge time was significantly more prolonged in Group C than Group D [Table 3].
Table 2: Demographic profile and the preoperative hematologic status in both groups

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Table 3: Operative time and duration of controlled hypotension

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Number of patients treated with fentanyl and the mean dose of the drug was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the clonidine treated group than dexmedetomidine group [Table 4]. Again to ensure induced hypotension, a dose of nitroglycerine and the number of patients treated with the medicine was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Group C than Group D [Table 4]. [Table 1] shows that nasal bleeding score was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Group C than Group D [Table 1]. Again due to less bleeding and excellent operative condition, surgeon's satisfaction score was significantly better in dexmedetomidine treated group than clonidine pretreated group [Table 1]. Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, shivering were all comparable among two groups, but bradycardia and hypotension were significantly higher in Group C (P < 0.05) [Table 5]. MAP and HR among two groups were found to be quite comparable among two groups (P > 0.05) [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Intraoperative mean arterial pressure among two groups

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Figure 2: Intraoperative heart rate among two groups

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Table 4: Fentanyl and nitroglycerine for analgesia and controlled hypotension

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Table 5: Side effects

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  Discussion Top


Day care surgery has proven over the years as the best method to reduce the burden on the health care resources as well as the achievement of extreme patient satisfaction. [19] In developing countries, most of the patients avoid bearing expenses of prolonged hospital stay. At the same time, infrastructure in these countries is not organized uniformly to smoothly deliver the day care procedures. In the day care scenario, hemorrhage in the immediate postoperative period is the most common cause of delayed recovery and discharge after ambulatory surgery and most frequent (even extending up to 8.8%) cause of unplanned admission and subsequently delayed return to work. [20] However, it does require a careful selection of those patients who are good candidates for the surgery as well as an adequate preliminary anesthetic assessment to ensure that the major outpatient surgery will not only provide economic benefits but also that the patient will have a sense of improvement in his or her quality of life. [21]

FESS is usually done for the treatment of patients with acute as well as chronic sinonasal disease who do not respond to the conventional medical treatment. Good visibility during FESS is necessary because of nasal tiny anatomical structures, which are full of vessels and limit the nasal endoscopic access. In such situation, even a minor bleeding can lead the surgical procedure left unfinished. [22]

A lot of efforts have been done to optimize the surgical conditions for FESS. Controlled hypotension has been widely advocated to control bleeding during FESS to improve the quality of the surgical field. [23]

In this study, we had chosen a target MAP 60-70 mm Hg to provide the best surgical conditions without the risk of tissue hypoperfusion depending on a review of literature conducted by Barak et al. with a MAP of 50-65 mm Hg during major maxillofacial surgeries. [24] Hypotensive anesthesia induced by using sodium nitroprusside or nitroglycerine in mandibular osteotomy to achieve MAP 60-70 mm Hg was found to be absolutely safe and associated with no significant increase in pyruvate, lactate, or glucose levels. [7]

Clonidine is a α2 -agonist that has been used for premedication in adult and pediatric patients. Clonidine is effective by the stimulation of pre- and post-synaptic α2 -agonists in many areas of the central nervous system leading to sedation, analgesia, and reduction of sympathetic tone. [25] Single preoperative administration of clonidine can reduce surgical time and improve surgical results through a less bloody field resulting in lower patient morbidity and improvement of operating room resources. [12] But, dexmedetomidine, is a more highly specific α2 -adrenoreceptor agonist (α21 = 1620/1) than clonidine (α21 = 220/1), has been approved by Food and Drug Administration as a short-term sedative for mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients. [16] Guven et al. in their study on FESS with preoperative dexmedetomidine found that lower HR and MAP had resulted in a much lower bleeding scores, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and shorter operative time when compared with a placebo group. [26]

Unfortunately, no sufficient clinical trials studied the effectiveness of combining α2 -agonist (either clonidine or dexmedetomidine or comparing the two) infusion and direct vasodilator nitroglycerine infusion in producing controlled hypotensive anesthesia.

In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial, we had compared the efficacy of preoperative IV bolus dexmedetomidine at 1 μg/kg and clonidine at 1.5 μg/kg for producing controlled hypotension, as well as on visibility of surgical field, satisfaction of the surgeon, postoperative need for analgesia (fentanyl requirement), and recovery profile for the patients undergoing FESS in an ambulatory care setting.

The demographic profile between two groups, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05) of our patients was quite similar with other research investigations and provided us the uniform platform to evenly compare the results obtained. [27]

From [Table 3], it is quite evident that durations of surgery and anesthesia were quite comparable among the two groups. These results were very similar to the study with same two drugs, conducted by Mariappan et al. [28] At the same time, they found that the recovery was similar among two groups, but in our study, PACU recovery and hospital discharge was significantly earlier in dexmedetomidine group than clonidine. [28] In our study, duration of controlled hypotension was prolonged in Group D than Group C but the difference was clinically insignificant. Similar result was also found by Mariappan et al. [28]

We have found fentanyl requirement both in terms of number and the total dosage of the drug was significantly less in the dexmedetomidine treated group than clonidine. Similarly, Panda et al. while comparing sympathoadrenal response and perioperative drug requirement found that fentanyl requirement was 33% versus 44% in dexmedetomidine and clonidine pretreated group, respectively. [29] But on the other hand, Naja et al. while conducting a study on the laparoscopic gastric sleeve found that pain score and analgesic consumption were comparable among two groups. [30] In our study, Nitroglycerine dose and the number of patients treated with it was significantly less in dexmedetomidine premedicated group while compared with clonidine. Bayram et al. also found similar results in favor of dexmedetomidine while conducting a comparative study with magnesium sulfate to produce controlled hypotension in FESS. [31]

Guven et al. in a placebo-controlled clinical trial found that dexmedetomidine continuous infusion had significantly reduced the bleeding score and improved the visibility in FESS. [26] On the other hand, Mohseni and Ebneshahidi found that oral clonidine premedication reduced the bleeding in FESS significantly when compared with a placebo. [14] Here, in our study, we have found that Group D patients suffered from less bleeding when compared with Group C. This is due to the hypotensive property of dexmedetomidine that is more profound than clonidine as evidenced from [Table 4].

In our study, nausea, vomiting, and shivering were comparable among two groups. But, the bradycardia was more in the clonidine group in a significant manner than dexmedetomidine group but the patients receiving atropine for bradycardia was again comparable among two groups. Similar results were observed by Guven et al. while doing a study on dexmedetomidine versus magnesium sulfate for producing controlled hypotension for the patients undergoing FESS. [26] Again, dexmedetomidine producing hypotension was significantly less than clonidine. Quite similar results were found while administering preoperative IV clonidine by Zalunardo et al. in their placebo-controlled study for attenuating stress response during emergence from anesthesia. [32]

There were some limitations of our study that need discussion. One of the limitations of the current study is the absence of a placebo-controlled group. Though it was initially planned, but later was rejected by the Hospital Ethics Committee. Second, we did not use a score for assessing the postoperative pain, however, the FESS is usually followed by headache sensation rather than pain and it was managed successfully by IV fentanyl. We had not measured sedation score, VAS score, and plasma catecholamine or stress hormone concentrations which may reveal relations between sympatholytic properties of α2 -agonists and earlier discharge after their use. Another limitation is that we compared clonidine and dexmedetomidine based on their known optimal as well as safe premedicating doses for day care setting without the knowledge of their equipotent doses. However, a larger study with large sample size needs to be conducted to establish the author's point of view with solidarity.

We do conclude that during ambulatory FESS, preinduction bolus dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg is more effective than clonidine 1.5 μg/kg; for providing controlled hypotension with smaller need of an additional hypotensive agent nitroglycerin and rendering an excellent surgical field with higher surgeon's satisfaction score and lesser analgesic requirement without major hemodynamic alteration.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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