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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 570-571

Prevention and treatment of sevoflurane emergence agitation and delirium in children with dexmedetomidine


Department of Anesthesiology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Michael Ayeko
Department of Anesthesiology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.140914

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Date of Web Publication16-Sep-2014
 


How to cite this article:
Ayeko M, Mohamed AA. Prevention and treatment of sevoflurane emergence agitation and delirium in children with dexmedetomidine. Saudi J Anaesth 2014;8:570-1

How to cite this URL:
Ayeko M, Mohamed AA. Prevention and treatment of sevoflurane emergence agitation and delirium in children with dexmedetomidine. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 10];8:570-1. Available from: http://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2014/8/4/570/140914

Sir,

We read with interest the article "prevention of sevoflurane-related emergence agitation (EA) in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol'' by Ali and Abdellatif [1] and wish to report a case in which very severe EA in a child responded only to intravenous (i.v.) dexmedetomidine.

A 13-year-old boy who underwent left myringotomy and grommets insertion under sevoflurane anesthesia, with midazolam (1 mg), fentanyl (100 mcg) and propofol (150 mg) induction, suddenly became very agitated and combative in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), kicking and thrashing around, and showing paranoid delusions and having hallucinations. EA/emergence delirium (ED) was diagnosed. He accidentally removed his i.v. catheter, which was immediately replaced. However, he became even more agitated, kicking and punching medical and nursing staff. He did not recognize his mother who was by now extremely alarmed and agitated. He was given i.v. midazolam 4 mg total, morphine 3 mg and further 30 mg boluses of propofol to a total of 150 mg but without any lasting effect. Subsequently, he was administered i.v dexmedetomidine 0.4 mcg/kg over about 6 min with almost immediate resolution of the EA/ED. He subsequently emerged from a brief period of restful sleep, calm, alert, and orientated without any signs of delirium. He was subsequently discharged after 30 min from the PACU to the ward.

Emergence delirium has been defined as "a disturbance in a child's awareness of and attention to his/her environment with disorientation and perceptual alterations including hypersensitivity to stimuli and hyperactive motor behavior in the immediate post anesthesia period." [2] The most important risk factors are the use of the newer halogenated inhaled anesthetics, such as sevoflurane or desflurane, which have been postulated to alter brain activity by interfering with the balance between neuronal synaptic inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system, [3] and the child's temperament, with children who are more emotional and more impulsive being at increased risk. [4]

This case supports the findings of Ali and Abdellatif [1] that dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha -2 agonist with sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic properties was significantly more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg or placebo in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA/ED when administered intraoperatively to children having surgical operations under sevoflurane anesthesia. It further demonstrates that dexmedetomidine can also treat EA/ED in the PACU. We recommend that it should be used as first line therapy for severe EA in PACU perhaps in combination with small doses of propofol to initially sedate the child.

 
  References Top

1.Ali MA, Abdellatif AA. Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol. Saudi J Anaesth 2013;7:296-300.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Sikich N, Lerman J. Development and psychometric evaluation of the pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale. Anesthesiology 2004;100:1138-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Yli-Hankala A, Vakkuri A, Särkelä M, Lindgren L, Korttila K, Jäntti V. Epileptiform electroencephalogram during mask induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane. Anesthesiology 1999;91:1596-603.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Maranets I, McClain B, Gaal D, Mayes LC, et al. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors. Anesth Analg 2004;99:1648-54.  Back to cited text no. 4
    



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1 Sevoflurane
Reactions Weekly. 2014; 1524(1): 171
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