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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 139-140

Anesthetic management for elective cesarean section in a case of acromegaly with diabetes mellitus


Department of Anaesthesiology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital & Research Center, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Chaula M Doshi
Department of Anaesthesiology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Navi Mumbai, Maharastra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.125979

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Date of Web Publication1-Feb-2014
 


How to cite this article:
Doshi CM, Mohite SN, Khatavkar SS, Vaghani S. Anesthetic management for elective cesarean section in a case of acromegaly with diabetes mellitus. Saudi J Anaesth 2014;8:139-40

How to cite this URL:
Doshi CM, Mohite SN, Khatavkar SS, Vaghani S. Anesthetic management for elective cesarean section in a case of acromegaly with diabetes mellitus. Saudi J Anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 22];8:139-40. Available from: http://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2014/8/1/139/125979

Sir,

We report a case of anesthetic management for cesarean section of a parturient with acromegaly, associated diabetes mellitus (DM) who had conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). She had undergone surgical resection, radiation and medical treatment (Cabergoline) for acromegaly. In view of precious, complicated pregnancy, general anesthesia was administered, which was uneventful.

A 30-year-oldprimigravida, weighing 70 kg, height 156 cm, withbody mass index 28.76, a known case of acromegaly with DM in whom IVF was done, was posted for elective cesarean section. Transsphenoid alresection of pituitary adenoma was done twice 7 and5 years back. Radiotherapy was given for residual tumor following which tablet Cabergoline 1 mg twice a day was started for growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion suppression. Cabergoline was stopped1 year back prior to fertility treatment as GH levels were normal. DM was controlled with injection insulin 48 units/day, which was increased to 58 units/day during pregnancy as per advice of treating Endocrinologist and Obstetrician. Ante natal period was uneventful with no evidence of increase in tumor size or pregnancy induced hypertension.

Pre-operative assessment revealed features of acromegaly such as prognathism, macroglossia spade like hands increased heel pad thickness (55 mm) [Figure1], which had not regressed with treatment. On assessment of airway, though mouth opening was adequate, Mallampati (MP) grade was III, neck was short and thyromental distance was 6 cm. She had no history of snoring. Pulse was 100/min; blood pressure (BP) 110/80 mm of Hg, breath holding time was 24s. Systemic examination was normal. All hematological and biochemical investigations were normal. Fasting glucose was 66 mg% post-lunch glucose was 83 mg% glycosylated haemoglobin 4.9 (HbA1 C ) fundoscopy: Normal. Direct laryngoscopy with 70° scope showed only posterior part of vocalcords with normal movements. Pregnancy being precious and complicated, regional anesthesia was not considered and general anesthesia was planned. Difficult intubation cart including intubating laryngeal mask airway and fiber optic bronchoscope was kept ready. Morning insulin was omitted. Aspiration prophylaxis; tablet pentaprazole 40 mg 6 h prior and injection ondansetron 4 mg intravenous 2 h prior to surgery was given. Patient was monitored using cardioscope, pulseoximeter, capnometer and non-invasive BP monitor. Patient was pre-oxygenated with 100% oxygen for 5 min. Rapid sequence induction was performed using the thiopentonesodium (350 mg) and succinylcholine (100 mg). Laryngoscopy with No.4 blade was done. Cormacke Lehane grade was II, intubation with 7.5 cuffed poly vinyl chloride tube done. Anesthesia maintained with controlled ventilation and standard protocols. A 3.2 kg baby was delivered with Apgar score of 8 at birth. Vital parameters intraoperatively were maintained. Patient was extubated after reversal, once awake. Second post-operative day, patient developed bilateral crepitations, puffiness of face, which responded to diuretics, oxygen and nebulisation. No maternal insulin required in post-operative period. Neonatal blood glucose values were 56 mg/dl, 68 mg/dl and 100 mg/dl at 1, 4 and 6 h of life. Klebsiellapneumonia developed in the neonate, which responded to antibiotics.
Figure 1 : Photograph showing patients foot with increased heel pad thickness

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The structural abnormalities involving the upper airway in acromegalics make functional aspects of airway management and intubation very challenging as MP grade may not project a true picture of the interior airway thus causing difficult bag and mask ventilation during administration of general anesthesia. [1] Skeletal changes that accompany acromegaly may make performance of regional anesthesia technically difficult or unreliable. [2] Pregnancy in acromegaly is difficult. [3] Few data is available on pregnancy in acromegaly. Pregnancy in women with active or uncontrolled acromegaly may be associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes and gravid hypertension. [4] Although the number of cases is small, no adverse effects on fetal development have been documented with use of pharmaceutical agents. [5] In our case, Cabergoline was stopped prior to IVF. Successful anesthetic management for caesarean section includes complete assessment of airway difficulties, proper maternal glycemic control and ruling out maternal hypertension or cardiomyopathy.

In our case, regional anesthesia though safe for cesarean section was deferred and general anesthesia was given to avoid the risk of sudden change in intracranial dynamics; as patient had undergone intracranial surgery for pituitary tumor twice. Choice of anesthetic technique is always a dilemma in patients with precious and complicated pregnancy.


  Acknowledgment Top


The authors would like to thank Dr.Doshi Manan M. Post Graduate Student, Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology. YMT Dental College and Hospital, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Maharashtra. India.

 
  References Top

1.Shah PN, Sonawane D, Appukutty J. Anesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour. Indian J Anaesth 2011;55:618-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Mehrotra M, Basu AR. Anesthetic management of a case of acromegaly in remote field location. MJAFI 2003;59:258-60.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Koshy TG, Rajaratnam S, Mathews JE, Rajshekhar V. Acromegaly in pregnancy. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012; 16:1029-31.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Caron P, Broussaud S, Bertherat J, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T, Cortet-Rudelli C, et al. Acromegaly and pregnancy: A retrospective multi center study of 59 pregnancies in 46 women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:4680-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Qureshi A, Kalu E, Ramanathan G, Bano G, Croucher C, Panahloo A. IVF/ICSI in a woman with active acromegaly: Successful outcome following treatment with pegvisomant. J Assist Reprod Genet 2006;23:439-42.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


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