Year : 2012  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 242-247

Perioperative predictors of morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass

1 Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Anaesthesiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
3 Department of Anaesthesiology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
Sohan Lal Solanki
Senior Resident, Department of Anaesthesiology, SGPGIMS, Rae-Barreily Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 23162397

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Background: Prediction of outcome after cardiac surgery is difficult despite a number of models using pre-, intra- and post-operative factors. Ideally, risk factors operating in all three phases of the patients' stay in the hospital should be incorporated into any outcome prediction model. The aim of the present study was to identify the perioperative risk factors associated with morbidity, mortality and length of stay in the recovery room (LOSR) and length of stay in the hospital (LOSH). Methods: Eighty-eight adults of either sex, patients undergoing elective open cardiac surgery were studied prospectively. The ability of a number of pre-, intra- and post-operative factors to predict outcome in the form of mortality, immediate morbidity (LOSR) and intermediate morbidity (LOSH) was assessed. Results: Factors associated with higher mortality were preoperative prothrombin index (PTI), American Society of Anesthesiology-Physical Status (ASA-PS) grade, Cardiac Anaesthesia Risk Evaluation (CARE) score and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, intraoperative duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (DCPB), number of inotropes used while coming off cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperatively, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II excluding the Glassgow Comma Scale (GCS) component and the number of inotropes used. Immediate morbidity was associated with preoperative PTI, inotrope usage intra- and post-operatively and the APACHE score. Intermediate morbidity was associated with DCPB and intra- and post-operative inotrope usage. Individual surgeon influenced the LOSR and the LOSH. Conclusion: APACHE score, a general purpose severity of illness score, was relatively ineffective in the postoperative period because of sedation, neuromuscular blockade and elective ventilation used in a number of these patients. The preoperative and intraoperative factors like CARE, ASA-PS grade, NYHA, DCPB and number of inotropes used influencing morbidity and mortality are consistent with the literature, despite the small size of our sample.

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