ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 55-62

Does the use of ketamine or nitroglycerin as an adjuvant to lidocaine improve the quality of intravenous regional anesthesia?


1 Assistant Professor of Anesthesia, College of Medicine, Ain Shames University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Assistant Professor of Cardiac Anesthesia, King Fahd Cardiac Centre, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Khaled Fawzy Elmetwaly
King Fahd Military Medical Complex, PO Box 946, Dhahran, 31932, Saudi Arabia

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.65122

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Aims: To compare and evaluate the effect of adding ketamine or nitroglycerin (NTG) as adjuncts to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) on intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, sensorial and motor block onset times, and tourniquet pain. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing hand surgery were divided into three groups as follows: control group receiving lidocaine 2%, LK group receiving lidocaine 2% with ketamine, and LN group administered lidocaine 2% with NTG. Sensory and motor blocks' onset and recovery times were recorded. Visual analog scale (VAS) for tourniquet pain was measured after tourniquet application and it was also used to measure postoperative pain. Analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain and postoperatively were recorded. Results: Sensory block onset times were shorter in the LK (4.4 1.2 minutes) and LN (3.5 0.9 minutes) groups compared with the control group (6.5 1.1 minute) (P <0.0001) and motor block onset times were shorter in the LK (7.3 1.6 minutes) and LN (3.6 1.2 minutes) groups compared with the control group (10.2 1.5 minutes) (P<0.0001). Sensory recovery time prolonged in the LK (6.7 1.3 minutes) and LN (6.9 1.1 minutes) groups compared with the control group (5.3 1.4 minutes) (P = 0.0006 and <0.0001, respectively). Motor recovery time prolonged in the LK (8.4 1.4 minutes) and LN (7.9 1.1 minutes) groups compared with the control group (7.1 1.3 minutes) (P = 0.0014 and 0.023, respectively). The sensory and motor block onset times were also shorter in LN group than in the LK group (3.5 0.9 versus 4.4 1.2 minutes, P=0.004; and 3.6 1.2 versus 7.3 1.6 minutes, P < 0.0001, respectively). The amount of fentanyl required for tourniquet pain was less in adjuvant groups when compared with control group. It was 13.6 27.9 and 27.6 34.9 μg in LK group and LN groups, respectively, versus 54.8 28 μg in the control group. VAS scores of tourniquet pain were higher at 10, 20, 30, 40 minutes in the control group compared with the other study groups (P < 0.0001). It was also higher in LN group compared with LK group at 30 and 40 minutes (P < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores were higher for the first 4 h in control group compared with the other study groups (P< 0.0001). Conclusions: The adjuvant drugs (ketamine or NTG) when added to lidocaine in IVRA were effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, reducing tourniquet pain, increasing tourniquet tolerance and improving the postoperative analgesia in comparison to the control group. Ketamine as an adjuvant produced better tolerance to tourniquet than the other groups. NTG as an adjuvant produced faster onset of sensory and motor blockades in comparison to other groups .


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