ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 61-66

Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery


Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, Doha Clinic Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Metwally Khattab
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, Doha Clinic Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Doha, Qatar

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.57878

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Background and Objectives: The use of sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia, which could enable a more rapid emergence and recovery, is complicated by the frequent occurrence of post-anesthesia agitation. This study aims to test the efficacy of adding a low dose of ketamine orally, as a supplement to the midazolam-based oral premedication for reducing sevoflurane-related emergence agitation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two preschool children, aged between two and six years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, scheduled for elective dental filling and extractions under general anesthesia were included. The patients were allocated into two groups: Group M (46 patients) received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, mixed with ibuprofen 10 mg/kg, while group KM (46 patients) received a similar premedication mixture, in addition to ketamine 2 mg/kg. The acceptance of the drug mixture, the onset of action, and the occurrence of vomiting were monitored over the next 30 minutes. Induction of anesthesia was carried out using sevoflurane 8 Vol% in 100% oxygen via face mask. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2 Vol% in an oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture. After extubation, the standard scoring scale was used for assessing the quality of emergence. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale. Agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 μg/ kg. The time of hospital discharge allowance was recorded. Results: Drug palatability, vomiting, and onset of action of premedication; showed no significant differences between both groups. Time of eye opening after discontinuation of sevoflurane showed no significant differences between both groups. Postoperative agitation score and rescue fentanyl consumption were higher in group M than in group KM on admission to the PACU ( P < 0.01). The time of hospital discharge allowance in group M was longer than in group KM ( P< 0.05). Conclusion: Adding a low dose of oral ketamine to midazolam-based oral premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery reduced sevoflurane-related emergence agitation without delaying discharge.


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